Revised Philippine Early Childhood Development Checklist Technical and Administration Manual
The Philippine Early Childhood Development (Phil. ECD) Checklist is designed for service providers like teachers, rural health midwives, child development and day care workers, parents/caregivers who can easily administer after a brief training period. By using the checklist, they will be able to determine if a child is developing adequately, or is at risk for developmental delays.
This Checklist is NOT intended to be used to 1) make a medical diagnosis; 2) determine a child’s intelligence quotient or IQ; or 3) gauge his academic achievement. It is only the first of several steps in a comprehensive assessment process that a child at risk is expected to go through so he can get the help he needs as early as possible.
The Checklist consists of a Child’s Record, divided into two parts: Child’s Record 1 for children aged 0 months to 3.0 years; Child Record 2 is for children aged 3 years and 1 month to 5 years and 11 months. The items in the Checklist are grouped into seven domains: 1) gross motor, 2) fine motor, 3) self-help, 4) receptive language, 5) expressive language, 6) cognitive, and 7) social-emotional. The Child Record 2 will be utilized for the kindergarten learners of the Department of Education.
The choice of items was based on statistical validation while the test has been normed based on a sample of 10,915 children from the NCR, III, VI, VII, VIII, and XII.
The Checklist is thus a product of careful refinement and validation. It is a monitoring tool suited to the needs of the Filipino child.
We hope that this Checklist will serve as a valuable tool not only in monitoring the Filipino child’s growth and development but also in ensuring that he or she enjoys a care and nurturing environment, thus assuring him or her of a secure tomorrow.
The Checklist can be administered in a setting familiar to the respondents. Ideally, the place should be relatively quiet, well lighted and ventilated, and have a table and chairs to provide comfortable conditions for the respondents and examiner.
If conducted outdoors and there is no table, any flat work surface will suffice.
The examiner can employ various methods to determine if the child exhibits specified behaviour. These include observation, direct elicitation of the behaviour from the child, and also interview of the parents(s) or caregiver(s).
When interviewing the parents(s) or caregiver(s), the examiner may wish to use the opportunity to ask them what activities they do at home to stimulate the development of their child. Their responses can be recorded on a separate sheet.
Older children aged 2.6 years and above may be tested in small groups of 2-3 similarly aged youngsters if the examiner feels this will make them more responsive to her queries and request. This especially if they have not had any day care or pre-school experience.
Each form of the revised ECD Checklist should not take more than 45 minutes to administer.
Fundamentals in Administration
Rapport-building is very important, especially when the child is not familiar with the examiner. So be sure to spend a few minutes interacting with the child by playing or chatting with him. It may help when the items, which involve interviewing the parents / caregiver, are administered first with the child nearby. This will make him realize that the examiner is a kind, caring person and facilitate the rapport-building process.
The examiner must emphasize that there are neither right or wrong answers nor good or bad scores. This will assure greater accuracy in what parents/ caregivers report and decrease the incidence of a child’s giving an answer based on what the others in the group have said.
The examiner must refrain from “teaching” the correct answer because this Checklist is intended to be given to the same child at a later point in time. If the child has been taught the answer, it will be difficult to determine if his success was due to this or to his expected maturation.
Answer that do not seem to exactly correspond to the intent of an item are to be written in the “Comments” column of the tool. These can serve as reference points of a child’s progress when the checklist is administered to him again at a later date.
Form 2 Materials:
- 2 clean small toys
- 2 balls
- food: bread, biscuit, raisins, individually wrapped candy
- container with screw on top (large enough to put small objects like raisins)
- unlined or bond paper
- 6 thick crayons (3pairs of color)
- thick pencil
- drinking cup and water
- 2 picture books with 2 pictures per page
- 2 blocks
- 2 spoons
- cloth (handkerchief or face towel)
- toy car
- shoe with laces
- small shirt with buttons
- 3 pairs of picture cards for matching
- 4 pairs of different shapes with same size and color
- 4 pairs of same shape but of different size and color: 2 sizes, 2 colors
- 6 pieces colored paper for color naming
- 4 pieces graduated sized circles and squares
- 4- to 6- piece puzzle
- 2 picture cards depicting 2 incongruous activities
- 4 pairs of cards with upper case letters
- 4 pairs of cards with lower case letters
- carrying case
Introducing the Philippine Early Childhood Development Checklist
CHILD’S RECORD FORM 2
Ages 3.1 – 5.11 years
Introduce the Checklist to the parent/ caregiver by saying the following:
We are here to help you find out how your child is developing by asking you some questions about the thing he is able to do or having your child do some activities. There is no pass or fail score. This is just a checklist. Some of the questions are for children older than your child so I do not expect him to be able to do all the things I will be asking.
We plan to administer this Checklist two times: upon entry to kindergarten and at the end of the school year. So please do not teach or coach him because it is important to know just what he can and what he still cannot do at this age.
Later on we will share the results with you and give suggestions on what else you can do to stimulate your child’s development.
Completing the Record Forms
The front page of the Checklist includes the portion of the sociodemographic information of the child that must be filled out completely. Compute the child’s age by subtracting the date he was born from the test that was administered.
Date of Exam: 2001 – 03 – 12
Date of Birth : 1998 – 05 – 17
2 – 09 – 25 ( Y – M – D )
Hence, in this example the child’s age is 2.9 years. There is no rounding off. Please note that each month consists of 30 days.
The Checklist is divided into 7 domains: Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Self-Help, Receptive Language, Expressive Language, Cognitive and Social-Emotional.
How to Administer the Items
The column labeled “Materials/ Procedure” gives specific instructions on how to observe the child or elicit the required responses, as well as some criteria on how to score the responses.
If the behaviour or response is present, place a check ( V ) in the “PRESENT” column. If the behaviour or response is not yet present / observed, indicate this via a hyphen ( – ).
The examiner may demonstrate skills in the Gross Motor, Fine Motor and Self-Help domains to make sure the child understands the instructions. However, unless otherwise specified, items in the Receptive Language, Expressive Language, Cognitive, and Social-Emotional domains should not be demonstrated. Some items indicate that the parental report will suffice. Other items indicate that the skill must be elicited by the examiner. For other items where neither of these has been specified, the examiner must try to elicit the skill. The examiner may ask the parent/ caregiver if a skill is present or absent only when she is in doubt about the child’s ability to display the skill, like if the child is not willing to respond/ perform because he is shy or not in the mood. If the child tries to do what is being asked but does not succeed, it is scored as “Not Present” (-).
Any observation or comment regarding a specific item or the response of the child may be written in the last column labeled “Comments”. Examples of such remarks include: item is not applicable; lack of opportunity, response was not displayed 2 out of 3 trials, etc.
Where to Start and Where to Stop
Administer all the items.
Teaching and giving feedback
The examiner must be careful not to teach the item or allow the parent/ caregiver to prompt the child. Also be careful not to make comments like “correct”‘ “very good”, “wrong”‘ etc. or show via facial expressions or gestures that a child is doing well or not very well. However, you can praise the child for his efforts by saying things like “good job” even if he does not succeed with the item. This will help him maintain his interest in the different activities you are asking him to do.
Sometimes the child can actually do an activity but just needs a little coaxing. In such instances, gently encourage the child to give the task a try and remind him that he is not expected to succeed all the time.
Make sure you avoid the following:
- Making remarks that will embarrass or humiliate the child like, “You are so big already and you still do not know how to do that?”
- Comparing him to his friends or other children in the group.
- Threatening him if he does not comply like saying, “I will tell your mommy that you do not want to do what I am asking you.”
Deferring the Evaluation
The evaluation may be deferred for another day for the following reasons:
- The child is sick and not feeling well.
- The child is crying and not disposed to cooperate.
If the evaluation has been deferred, disregard the results of the sessions where you could not complete administration of the Checklist.
Consider only that which you obtained when the child was most responsive. If, after 3 sessions/ attempts, you are still not able to get the child to work with you, bring the matter up to the supervisor.
How to score
1. Tally the number of check marks (V) in each domain and record all this in the section labeled “Total Score”. The check marks (V) that you tallied in each domain are the raw scores.
GROSS MOTOR DOMAIN
|1.||Climbs on chair or other elevated piece of furniture like a bed without help||Parental report will suffice|
|2.||Walks backwards||MATERIALS: toy PROCEDURE:|
Ask the child to walk backwards by demonstrating this. Credit if the child is able to walk backwards without falling and holding on to anything.
Parental report will suffice.
|3.||Runs without tripping or falling||MATERIAL: ball PROCEDURE:|
Encourage the child to run by rolling a ball across the floor.
Credit if the child can run fast and smoothly without tripping or falling.
|4.||Walks downstairs, 2 feet on each step, with one hand held||Automatically credit if item #6 is passed Parental report will suffice.|
|5.||Walks upstairs holding handrail, 2 feet on each step||MATERIAL: toy PROCEDURE:|
Place a toy in the middle of the 4th or 5th step and ask the child to walk up the stairs to get the toy. Credit if the child walks up walks up the stairs using the handrail or wall for support and places both feet on each step before stepping on the next one. Automatically credit if item #6 is passed. Parental report will suffice.
|6.||Walks upstairs with alternate feet without holding handrail||MATERIAL: toy PROCEDURE:|
Place a toy in the middle of the 4th or 5th step and ask the child to walk upstairs to get the toy. Credit if the child walks upstairs, alternating his feet as he steps on each successive step without holding onto the handrail or wall for support. Parenting report will suffice.
|7.||Walks downstairs with alternate feet without holding handrail||MATERIAL: TOY PROCEDURE:|
Place a toy at the bottom of the stairs and ask the child to walk downstairs to get the toy. Credit if the child walks downstairs, alternating his feet as he steps on each successive step without holding on to the handrail or wall for support. Do
not give credit if the child places both feet on the step or uses the handrail or wall for support. Parental report will suffice.
|8.||Moves body part as directed||PROCEDURE:|
Ask the child to raise both arms.
|9.||Jumps up||This must be elicited by the interviewer.|
|10.||Throws ball overhead with direction||MATERIAL: ball PROCEDURE:|
Give the child the ball and stand at least 3 feet away from him. Ask the child to throw the ball to you using an overhand throw. You may show the child how to do it. Credit if the child throws the ball within your arm's reach between your knees and head using an overhand throw and not sideways or underhand
|11.||Hops 1 to 3 steps on preferred foot||PROCEDURE:|
Ask the child to lift his foot and hop at least three times on his preferred foot. Credit if the child is able to hop at least three times on his preferred foot without holding on to anything.
|12.||Jumps and turns||PROCEDURE:|
Ask the child to jump while making a half-turn. Credit if the child is able to do this without tripping or falling.
|13.||Dances patterns / joins group movement activities||Parental report will suffice.|
FINE MOTOR DOMAIN
|1.||Uses all 5 fingers to get food/toys placed on flat surface||MATERIALS: small toy/ object|
Seat the child on the parent's lap with his elbows at level with the tabletop and his hands on the table or
flat surface. Drop a small toy in front of him and attract his attention by pointing to the toy or tapping the table/flat surface. Credit if the child picks up the toy, using all 5 fingers as if raking. Automatically credit if he passes the next item.
|2.||Picks up objects with thumb and index finger||MATERIALS: any small toy|
Place a toy/food in front of the child and within his reach. Attract his attention by tapping neat the toy/ food. Credit if the child uses the tips of his thumb and index or forefinger to pick up the toy/food.
|3.||Displays a definite hand preference||MATERIAL: toy PROCEDURE:|
Place the toy directly in front of the child at midline (not to his left or his right) and ask him to reach for this. Credit if he uses the same hand 2 out of 3 times. Parental report will suffice.
|4.||Puts small objects in/out of containers||MATERIALS: small objects, container This must be elicited by the interviews|
|5.||Holds crayon with all the fingers of his hand making a fist (i.e., palmar grasp)||MATERIALS: crayon PROCEDURE:|
Present child with a crayon and have him get this. Credit if he holds it by wrapping all 5 fingers around as if making a fist. Automatically credit this item if he uses the tips of all 5 fingers or his thumb, index and middle fingers. This must be elicited by the interviews.
|6.||Unscrews lid of container or unwraps food||MATERIALS: Container with screw-on top or wrapped candy. This must be elicited by the interviews.|
|7.||Scribbles spontaneously||MATERIALS: paper, pencil/|
Place a paper and pencil/ crayon on the table or flat surface and ask the child to draw anything he wants without showing him what to do. Credit if the child uses the tips of his thumb and any of his other fingertips to grasp the pencil/crayon and makes purposeful marks on the paper (not accidental marks).
|8.||Scribbles vertical and horizontal lines||MATERIALS: paper, pencil/|
Place a paper and pencil/ crayon on the table or flat surface and ask the child to draw vertical and horizontal lines after you have demonstrated these to him. Credit if the child produces a vertical or horizontal line that is at least 2 inches long and does not deviate or vary from your vertical line by more than 30 degrees. The lines may be wavy but not broken.
|9.||Draws circle purposely||MATERIALS: paper, pencil/|
Place a paper and pencil/ crayon on the table or flat surface and ask the child to draw a circle or a ball after you have demonstrate it to him. Credit if the child produces any curve that is closed or nearly closed. Continuous spiral motions are not credited.
|10.||Draws a human figure (head, eyes, trunk, arms, hands/ fingers)|
Draws a house using geometric forms
|MATERIALS: paper, pencil PROCEDURE:|
Give the child a pencil and a paper and ask him to draw a picture of a person. Credit if the child has draw 3 or more body parts. A pair is considered one part (eyes, ears, arms, hands, legs, and feet)
and must be drawn in pairs to get full credit unless the drawing is in profile
|MATERIALS: paper, pencil PROCEDURE:|
Give the child a pencil and paper and ask him to draw a picture of a house. Credit if the child has drawn at least the roof, main frame, and a door or window
|1.||Feeds self with finger food (e.g. biscuits, bread) using fingers||MATERIALS: bread, biscuits This must be elicited by the interviewer.|
|2.||Feeds self using fingers to eat rice/ viands with spillage||Automatically credit if the child eats without spillage. Parental report will suffice|
|3.||Feeds self using spoon with spillage||Automatically credit if the child eats without spillage. Parental report will suffice|
|4.||Feeds self using fingers without spillage||Parental report will suffice|
|5.||Feeds self using spoon without spillage||Parental report will suffice|
|6.||Eats without need for spoon feeding during any meal||Parental report will suffice|
|7.||Helps hold cup for drinking||MATERIALS: drinking cup, water|
Note: The cup should not have a lid or spout. This must be elicited by the interviewer
|8.||Drinks from cup with spillage||MATERIALS: drinking cup, water|
Note: The cup should not have a lid or spout.
This must be elicited by the interviewer. Automatically credit if he passes the next item.
|9.||Drinks from cup unassisted||MATERIALS: drinking cup, water|
This must be elicited by the interviewer.
|10.||Gets drink for self unassisted||Parental report will suffice|
|11.||Pours from pitcher without spillage||Parental report will suffice|
|12.||Prepares own food/ snack||Ask the caregiver if the child can prepare his own snack without help except for getting items that are hard to reach (e.g. bowl spoon).|
|13.||Prepares meals for younger siblings/ family members||Parental report will suffice|
|14.||Participates when being dressed (e.g. raises arms or lifts leg)||Parental report will suffice|
|15.||Pulls down gartered short pants||Parental report will suffice|
|16.||Removes sando||Parental report will suffice|
|17.||Dresses without assistance except for buttoning and tying||Parental report will suffice|
|18.||Dresses without assistance including buttoning and tying||MATERIAL: small shirt with button and shoestring PROCEDURE:|
Have the child demonstrate how to button in order to credit this item
|Toilet training-sub domain|
|19.||Informs the adult only after he has already urinated (peed) or moved his bowels (poohed) in his underpants||Parental report will suffice|
|20.||Informs adult of need to urinate (pee) or move bowels (pooh- pooh) so he can be brought to a designated place (e.g. comfort room)||Parental report will suffice|
|21.||Goes to the designated place to urinate (pee) or move bowels (pooh) but sometimes still does this in his underpants||Parental report will suffice|
|22.||Goes to the designated place to urinate (pee) or move bowels (pooh) and never does this is his underpants anymore||Parental report will suffice|
|23.||Wipes/Cleans self after a bowel movement (pooh)||Parental report will suffice|
|24.||Participates when bathing (e.g. rubbing arms with soap)||Parental report will suffice|
|25.||Washes and dries hands without any help||Ask the caregiver if the child can wash and dry his face without any help or supervision except to turn on/off faucets that are out of reach.|
|26.||Washes face without any help||Ask the caregiver if the child can wash and dry his face without any help or supervision except to turn on/off faucets that are out of reach|
|27.||Bathes without any help||Parental report will suffice|