The Department of Education (DepEd) Flexible Learning Options (FLOs) provide a menu of learning interventions and pathways that are responsive to the needs, context, circumstances, and diversity of learners. FLOs allow for variations in organization, approaches and modalities of teaching and learning. This flexibility is helpful for learners who are at risk of dropping out, children and youth who are out of school, adults who failed to finish basic education, learners with special needs, learners with extreme difficulty in accessing schools or those who attend overpopulated schools, and learners in emergency situations.
There are two main categories of Flexible Learning Options (FLOs): the Alternative Delivery Modes or ADMs and the Alternative Learning System or ALS.
Table of Contents
Alternative Delivery Modes (ADMs)
Alternative Delivery Modes (ADMs) are instructional or learning modalities that do not strictly follow the typical set-up for regular classroom instruction, but follow the formal K to 12 curriculum in content. Formal curriculum refers to the curriculum starting at Kindergarten and ending at Grade 12 that learners undergo through successive grade levels.
The flexibility in instructional or learning modalities of ADMs is in terms of the time and duration of instruction, the place of instruction, or the method of instruction. Instruction may be face-to-face learning, where the teacher and learner/s are physically in one venue during lessons, distance learning, where a learner is given materials or access to resources and s/he undertakes self-directed study at home or in another venue, or blended learning, a combination of face-to-face and distance modalities.
All public elementary and secondary schools should be ready to offer ADMs for all types of learners whenever the need arises. They are required to inform their Schools Division Office through a letter addressed to the SDS every time a new ADM is offered by the school.
Private schools are similarly allowed to offer ADMs after securing a permit to offer from their Regional Office. The requirements for acquiring a permit include a letter of intent addressed to the Regional Director through the Schools Division Superintendent, and an implementation plan that describes the target learners for the ADM, the training plan for parents, and the learning resources. A school coordinator must also be identified for every ADM that the school will offer.
The learning resources for the K to 12 program are also used for ADMs. However, distance or blended learning may require learning resources that are designed for independent or self-paced study. These may be in the form of modules made available through ICT or other technological tools.
The ongoing ADMs of DepEd are as follows:
Home schooling provides learners with access to formal education while staying in an out-of-school environment. Authorized parents, guardians, or tutors take the place of the teachers as learning facilitators. While learners are expected to meet the learning standards of the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum, the learning facilitators are given flexibility in learning delivery, scheduling, assessment, and curation of learning resources. The program aims to cater to learners who may require home schooling because of their unique circumstances, such as illness, frequent travelling, special education needs, and other similar contexts. Moreover, the program allows parents and guardians to maximize their involvement in their children’s education as a matter of parenting philosophy.
Parents or guardians who opt to enroll their children in a home school program should do so through a public school, or through a private school that had been given a permit to offer a home school program. These schools will be in charge of ensuring the following:
a. that a parent or guardian is assigned as a learning facilitator;
b. that the learner is registered through the Learner Information System (LIS);
c. that learning materials and resources are available for the learner; and
d. the School Form 9 and other pertinent school records are issued to homeschoolers.
Alternatively, learners may be enrolled through home school providers, which are learning centers or institutions that provide home schooling. To facilitate the registration of learners through the Learner Information System (LIS), these providers may either find a DepEd accredited partner school, or they may coordinate with the SDO directly.
Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers (IMPACT)
The development of IMPACT as an alternative delivery mode has been facilitated by the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization Regional Center for Educational Innovation and Technology (SEAMEO INNOTECH) in the early 1970s in response to the common problems faced by the member states in their respective education systems. These problems include unequal access to high-quality education, high dropout rates, low cohort survival rates, and declining learning achievements, among others. IMPACT was thus designed to effectively address these issues while maximizing the states’ limited economic resources; by providing space for both independent and collaborative learning, and by empowering families to support their children’s education through tutoring and monitoring of their progress, the program pools together the resources of the schools and their immediate communities to extend the reach and improve the quality of the education system.
In the Philippines, IMPACT is available for elementary schools only. Schools that offer this learning option must group learners from varying grade levels into learning families, which consist of 50 to 60 learners each; ideally, learners should be placed in the same learning family as their siblings/relatives, neighbors, and friends, so that the members of the group are naturally accountable for one other’s attendance and progress in school. Teachers will function as instructional supervisors who will oversee the learning of 1-2 learning families.
IMPACT allows for three modes of learning delivery, namely (1) Programmed Teaching, (2) Peer Group Learning, and (3) Self-Instruction.
Programmed Teaching is available for learners in Grades 1 to 3. The content and delivery of lessons are pre-arranged through Learning Modules, and are presented by selected learners from Grades 4 to 6. These selected learners will be trained by the instuctional supervisors to teach half of the required lesson for one subject. The schedule of learners who will be assigned to teach must be given at least a week ahead to allow them to prepare the learning materials and to practice their deliveiy. This arrangement allows for the instructional supervisor to attend to more learners, while also giving an opportunity for able Grades 4 to 6 learners to enhance their mastery of the competencies they teach.
Peer Group Learning, on the other hand, is available for learners from Grades 4 to 6. Within learning families, learners are further grouped into peer groups with 5-6 members of varying assessed learning levels, as determined through a diagnostic test. Each group will study the same set of modules at their appropriate pace; learners will take turns in leading the discussions, although the ones who have performed well in diagnostic tests will be assigned to lead first. This arrangement gives space for learners to develop skills in collaboration and leadership.
In addition, when peer groups finish the learning modules, they will meet as one class and will be handled by a Resource Teacher, who will deliver enrichment classes and introduce audio-visual materials to the learners.
Finally, Self-Instruction can be availed by Grade 4 to 6 learners in two ways. For those who are able to regularly attend the peer group meetings, they are given an hour a day for independent learning. During this time, learners are tasked to either review the modules they have already accomplished, or to prepare for the next module. The instructional supervisor is also expected to assist learners through remediation if necessary. If equipment is available, learners will also be allowed to look up and study other learning resources available online. On the other hand, Self-Instruction may also refer to learners studying the modules on their own outside the school. This option is available for learners who exhibit functional literacy, and who are unable to regularly report to school due to valid reasons such as illness, or the need to assist parents at work.
Modified In-School Off-School Approach (MISOSA)
In order to address limitations in classrooms, teachers, and learning materials, DepEd schools may offer the Modified In-School Off-School Approach (MISOSA). This delivery mode specifically caters to Grades 4, 5, and 6 classes with at least 50 learners. Learners are divided into two groups. During class hours, except on designated days for assessments, only one of the groups will be in school, while the other will be at another location near the school or will meet online through a platform prepared by the school, depending on the agreement set by the class. The in-school group will proceed with formal instruction facilitated by their regular school teachers, while the out-school group will have independent learning using the materials provided by the school, with the assistance of a para-teacher or learning facilitator. The groups will switch arrangements periodically (e.g. a week, or a month), depending on the agreed time between the learners and the teacher. The two groups shall meet together for assessment and for enrichment.
Acknowledging that independent learning requires functional literacy, learners are first required to take the Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) test, as well as other school-based assessment tools, and pre-tests before the implementation of the program. Learners that are found to be incapable of independent learning will have to stay in the in-school group, until they gain the necessary competencies. Further, the school will conduct an orientation for parents and guardians of those who will take part in the off-school arrangements, so that they may be informed of the goals of the program, the class schedule and venues, and the expectations from the learners.
The MISOSA may be implemented for learners who are capable of independent learning, and learners in emergency situations given the availability of learning facilitators, and accessible learning resources, learning centers, or platforms/software for program implementation.
Night High School
The Night High School program aims to provide opportunity to high school learners to finish basic education through evening classes. The program is intended for high school learners, of legal age, who are working.
Secondary schools implementing night high school should submit to the Schools Division Office a night class program to be completed in 4 to 5 years for Junior Night High School and 2 to 2 % years for Senior Night High School. Classes should begin not earlier than 4:30 in the afternoon and end not later than 9:30 in the evening, and may include the conduct of Saturday classes. The program allows for the Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) competencies to be completed in the learner’s workplace subject to proper supervision and evaluation by the TLE teacher and the partner-employer. All other program schemes must be approved by the Schools Division Office.
Open High School
The Open High School Program (OHSP) is an alternative mode of delivering secondary education that puts a premium on independent, self-paced and flexible study to reach learners who are unable to start or complete secondary education due to limited time, geographical inaccessibility of schools, physical impairment, financial difficulties, and/or social or family problems.
The program is open to all high school learners who are abale to demonstrate their capacity for independent learning through to Independent Learning Readiness Test (ILRT) and Informal Reading Inventory (IRI). Qualified learners are expected to report to school on a weekly basis during the first semester and subsequently reduced to a monthly consultation during the second half of the school year depending on his readiness for independent learning. A teacher-adviser and subject teachers shall be assigned to a class in order to provide support to the learner. The program is to be delivered for 6 years for Junior High and additional 3 years for Senior High School.
Table 1 summarizes the five ADMs DepEd offers.
Table 1: Summary of DepEd ADMs
|Home School||Provides basic education to learners in a home-based setting with parents, guardians or tutors as learning facilitators, under supervision by DepEd and designated licensed|
|Learners who are unable to attend school but have someone who is capable of delivering instruction|
|IMPACT (Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers)||Provides basic education to learners in school-based setting wherein multi-grade learners are grouped for learning facilitated by peers, parents, or community members under the guidance of an instructional supervisor. It also allows for independent learning.||Learners in congested schools where there are communitybased volunteers and teachers|
|Modified In-School Off-School Approach (MISOSA)||Provision of formal education in school and off-school to learners in Grades 4 to 6 with capacity for independent learning, and who could not be fully accommodated in school. They receive blended instruction. In-school group are with the classroom or subject teachers and the off-school group are with a teacher-facilitator in a separate venue.||Learners in overpopulated schools.|
Learners who are unable to attend school regularly due to economic, physical and social constraints.
|Night High School||Learners attend classes after regular school hours. This learning option allows program completion beyond the prescribed number of years.||For high school learners who are unable to go to school during the day|
|Open High School Program (OHSP)||Provides opportunity to all high school learners capable of|
independent learning to complete basic education through quality distance education
|For high school learners who are incapable of going or staying in school|
Alternative Learning System (ALS)
The Alternative Learning System (ALS) is distinguished from the ADMs by its use of the non-formal ALS – K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum.
According to UNESCO, “the defining characteristic of non-formal education is that it is an addition, alternative and/or a complement to formal education in the process of the lifelong learning of individuals. It caters to people of all ages, but does not necessarily apply a continuous pathway-structure. Non-formal education can cover programs contributing to adult and youth literacy and education for out-of-school children, as well as programs on life skills, work skills, and social or cultural development.”
The ALS-K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum is aligned with the K to 12 Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum. Like the K to 12 formal curriculum, the ALS-K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum (ALS-K to 12) is also expressed in Content Standards, Performance Standards and Learning Competencies. In addition, ALS learning competencies are also coded. Those that have been lifted from the formal curriculum have two codes, i.e. their code from the formal curriculum and their ALS learning competency code.
During the alignment and finalization process, many learning competencies from the formal school curriculum were adopted in the ALS-K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum. Additionally, some competencies on ICT and life skills that are not found in the formal school system have been included.
There was significant expansion of the content scope of the curriculum to ensure alignment with the formal K to 12 school curriculum. The number of competencies included in the former ALS curriculum was increased from 776 learning competencies to 2,046 enhanced learning competencies.
In general, the ALS-K to 12 is organized into six interrelated learning strands that bring functional literacy and content knowledge together. It has contextualized learning materials which take into account the prior learning, competencies, and experiences of learners. The strands continue to be anchored on the original learning strands of the ALS-K to 12 with some refinements:
a. Revision of the content scope and title of Learning Strand 3 to Life and Career Skills
b. Integration of the former Learning Strand 4 (Development of Self and Sense of Community) and Learning Strand 5 (Expanding One’s World Vision) into a single learning strand (Learning Strand 4) titled “Development of Self and Sense of National, Regional, Global Identity”
c. Development of a new learning strand (competencies for Learning Strand 5) focused on digital literacy
d. Separation of the former Learning Strand 2 into two separate strands (Scientific Literacy and Critical Thinking Skills and Mathematical and Problem-Solving Skills)
Table 2 shows the six learning strands and corresponding topics or skills.
Table 2: ALS Curriculum Learning Strands
|Learning Strands||Topics or Skills|
|Learning Strand 1||Communication Skills (English)|
|Communication Skills (Filipino)|
|Learning Strand 2||Scientific Literacy and Critical Thinking Skills|
|Learning Strand 3||Mathematical and Problem-Solving Skills|
|Learning Strand 4||Life and Career Skills|
|Learning Strand 5||Understanding the Self and Society|
|Learning Strand 6||Digital Literacy|
Each strand has a schematic diagram that describes the relationship of the parts to the whole strand. Each strand contains content and performance standards which are then followed by learning competencies. Next to the learning competencies are columns representing the ALS learning stages, specifically: Basic Literacy, Elementary level (Lower and Advanced), Junior High School and Senior High School.
ALS – K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum Learning Strands Content
Learning Strand 1: Communication Skills (English)
The main thrust of Learning Strand (LS) 1: Communication Skills is to develop the ability to access, critically process and effectively use available information in a variety of media to be able to:
- function effectively as a member of the family, community, nation, and the world; and
- participate actively in community and economic development.
Learning Strand 1 involves the five macro skills: (1) listening purposively and critically; (2) speaking clearly and appropriately; (3) reading to process and critically use information from a wide range of written materials and other forms of media; (4) expressing one’s ideas and feelings clearly and effectively in writing; and (5) viewing as an ability to demonstrate critical understanding and interpretation of visual media.
To complete SHS and meet the competencies for the middle skills development, entrepreneurship, and employment exits of the basic education curriculum, ALS learners must complete the competencies that are specified in English for Academic and Professional Purposes and Practical Research 1 and 2 (which are applied subjects). The topic of Practical Research 1 and 2 may be lifted from the other ALS learning strands. They should also complete the specialization subjects of any of the following Senior High School tracks: Sports, Arts and Design or Technical-Vocational-Livelihood.
College-bound ALS learners in SHS must also complete the core subjects Oral Communication, Reading and Writing and 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World (or their equivalents). They must also complete all the specialization subjects in any of the Academic Strands (Accountancy, Business and Management [ABM], Humanities and Social Sciences [HUMSS], Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics [STEM], or General Academic).
Learning Strand 1: Communication Skills (Filipino)
Kasanayan sa Komunikasyong Filipino
Ang pangunahing layunin ay mapaunlad ang kakayahan ng mga matatatanda at kabataang hindi na nakakapag-aral upang kritikal na masuri, rnaabot at epektibong magamit ang impormasyon sa pamamagitan ng iba’t ibang uri ng midya upang:
- Epektibong magampanan ang tungkulin bilang miyembro ng pamilya, komunidad, bansa at daigdig;
- Aktibong makilahok sa pagpapaunlad ng komunidad at ekonomiya.
Kasangkot din dito ang limang makrong kasanayan: (1) kritikal at malayuning pakikinig; (2) wasto, angkop at malinaw na pagsasalita; (3) pagpoproseso mula sa pagbabasa at masusing paggamit ng impormasyong nakasulat o inihayag gamit ang iba’t ibang anyo ng midya; (4) pagpapahayag ng naiisip at nararamdaman nang malinaw at epektibo sa pamamagitan ng pagsusulat; at (5) kritikal na pag-unawa at pagpapakahulugan sa panonood mga. midyang biswal.
Upang makapagtapos ng SHS at maging kuwalipikado para sa trabciho, negosyo, at paglilinang ng ‘middle skills’, kinakailangang makumpleto ng mag-aaral ng ALS ang mga kompetensing nakasaad sa Filipino sa Piling Larangan (na isang applied subject). Kinakailangan rin nilang
makumpleto ang mga specialization subjects sa isa sa mga tracks na. ito: Sports, Arts and Design o Technical-Vocationa.1-Liuelihood.
Sa mga. mag-aaral ng ALS na. nais pumasok sa kolehiyo, kinakailangan rin nilang kumpletuhin ang core subjects na Komunikasyon at Pancinaliksik sa Wika at Kulturang Filipino, Pagbasa at Pagsusuri ng Iba’t-ibang Teksto Tungo sa Pananaliksik (o ang mga katumbas nito). Kinakailangan rin nilang makumpleto ang mga specialization subjects sa isa sa mga strand ng Academic Track (Accountancy, Business and Management [ABM], Humanities and Social Sciences [HUMSS], Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics [STEM], at General Academic).
Learning Strand 2: Scientific Literacy and Critical Thinking
Learning Strands 2 and 3 are intended to develop skills which include the core competencies of scientific literacy and numeracy. Integrated across scientific and numeracy literacy skills are the critical functional competencies of openness to change, awareness of options, ability to make critical and informed decisions, curiosity, innovativeness and creativity, scientific thinking, logical reasoning, spatial, intelligence and future orientation. These competencies specifically seek to extend and refine learners’ critical and creative thinking processes including the abilities to:
- Organize new knowledge;
- Gather and analyze information;
- Categorize things and ideas;
- Make comparisons;
- Infer principles from evidences;
- Critique one’s own thinking;
- Evaluate options as a basis of decision, making;
- Apply the scientific process;
- Seek explanation for applying the scientific process;
- Support assertions with evidences;
- Overcome obstacles and find a better way to do things;
- Apply principles to draw conclusions; and
- Learn independently.
The ultimate goal of Learning Strands 2 and 3 is to develop individuals who are aware of their own thinking, able to make critical and informed decisions, defend their ideas and evaluate the ideas of others and are persistent in striving for new ways of solving problems. Through the development of such critical thinking and problem-solving skills, ALS learners will enhance their own personal and social effectiveness as a pathway to improve quality of life.
Scientific Literacy and Critical Thinking Skills
To complete SHS and meet the competencies for middle skills development, entrepreneur ship, and employment exits of the basic education curriculum, ALS learners must complete the competencies that are specified in Inquiries, Investigations and Immersion (which is an applied subject). They should also complete the specialization subjects of any of the following Senior High School tracks: Sports, Arts and Design or Technical-Vocational-Livelihood.
College-bound ALS learners in SHS must also complete the core subjects Earth and Life Science, Physical Science, Physical Education and Health and Disaster Readiness and Risk Reduction (or their equivalents). They must also complete all the specialization subjects in any of the Academic Strands (Accountancy, Business and Management [ABM], Humanities and Social Sciences [HUMSS], Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics [STEM], or General Academic).
Learning Strand 3: Mathematical and Problem-Solving Skills
Mathematical and Problem Solving Skills
To complete SHS and meet the competencies for middle skills development, entrepreneur ship, and employment exits of the basic education curriculum, ALS learners must complete the competencies that are specified in Statistics and Probability. They should also complete the specialization subjects of any of the following Senior High School tracks: Sports, Arts and Design or Technical-Vocational-Livelihood.
College-bound ALS learners in SHS must also complete the core subjects General Mathematics and Statistics and Probability (or their equivalents). They must also complete all the specialization subjects in any of the Academic Strands (Accountancy, Business and Management [ABM], Humanities and Social Sciences [HUMSS], Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics [STEM], or General Academic).
Learning Strand 4: Life and Career Skills
Learning Strand 4 focuses on the attitudes, skills, and knowledge (competencies) necessary for earning a living and promoting a sustainable lifestyle.
This learning strand covers the ability to earn a living -through employment / self-employment, entrepreneurship, sustainable consumption – live within one’s means, navigate the market place (as both consumer and seller), reduce wasteful expenditure and perform wise consumption/utilization of resources; conserve resources for future generations; and produce and use work-related skills, knowledge, values and technology to maximize one’s efficiency and performance as a productive citizen.
In addition to demonstrating mastery of skills completed under LS 4 all ALS learners are encouraged to complete at least one TVL track specialization leading to the acquisition of occupational skills and a national certificate (NC). Learners are referred to the list of specializations in formal school’s TVL Track.
To complete SHS and meet the competencies for the middle skills development, entrepreneur ship, and employment exits of the basic education curriculum, ALS learners must complete the competencies that are specified in Entrepreneurship (which is an applied subject). They should also complete the specialization subjects of any of the following Senior High School tracks: Sports, Arts and Design or Technical-Vocational-Livelihood.
College-bound ALS learners in SHS must also complete the core subject Personal Development (or its equivalent). They must also complete all the specialization subjects in any of the Academic Strands (Accountancy, Business and Management [ABM], Humanities and Social Sciences [HUMSS], Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics [STEM], or General Academic).
Learning Strand 5: Understanding Self and Society
Learning Strand 5 is intended to help learners acquire a positive sense of self and social responsibility that will lead them to develop their potentials and enable them to live together harmoniously within the contexts of their family, local community, and country as well as participate as a member of the ASEAN region and an increasingly global community.
This means helping learners develop the capacity to think with complexity and take into account multiple cultural perspectives. (Source: Chickering and Reisser 1993). In an increasingly globalized world, it is important that learners are able to see things through the hearts, minds and eyes of others and understand the impact of regional and global issues on their lives and the lives of the members of their family, community and country.
The learning strand endeavors to encourage learners to continue developing the knowledge, attitudes, values and skills in order to act locally in building a just, peaceful, equitable, compassionate, multi-cultural and pluralistic society. Hence, it is important to articulate in the minds of the learners that whatever they do affects their sphere of influence (family and community) and creates an impact on the nation, the region and the world. According to Colby and Sullivan (2009) persons with a civic and moral identity and sense of obligation to society are more apt to behave in ways that fulfill individual and social responsible goals. Thus, as members of the ASEAN and world communities, learners’ horizons for developing identity need to be national, regional and global.
To complete SHS and meet the competencies for the middle skills development, entrepreneur ship, and employment exits of the basic education curriculum, ALS learners must complete the competencies that are specified in Disciplines and Ideas in the Applied Social Sciences (which is a Humanities and Social Sciences Strand subject). They should also complete the specialization subjects of any of the following Senior High School tracks: Sports, Arts and Design or Technical-Vocational-Livelihood.
College-bound ALS learners in SHS must also complete the core subjects Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions, Introduction to Philosophy of the Human Person, and Understanding Culture, Society and Politics (or their equivalents). They must also complete all the specialization subjects in any of the Academic Strands (Accountancy, Business and Management [ABM], Humanities and Social Sciences [HUMSS], Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics [STEM], or General Academic).
Learning Strand 6: Digital Literacy
This learning strand seeks to help equip ALS learners with critical knowledge, skills and values to be able to live and work effectively as part of the digital universe.
To achieve digital literacy, ALS learners need both ICT-related knowledge and skills and the ability to integrate such skills and knowledge across the competencies listed in the other four learning strands of the ALS curriculum. This is the application part where the learners use their digital knowledge and skills as tools to communicate with others and solve problems in daily life. Each of the other four learning strands will thus go hand in hand with Learning Strand 6.
This Learning Strand covers the following digital literacy competencies:
- Digital Concepts
- Digital Operations and Management
- Digital Applications
- Digital Systems Network
- Digital Devices
- Digital Ethics
To complete SHS and meet the competencies for the middle skills development, entrepreneurship, and employment exits of the basic education curriculum, ALS learners must complete the competencies that are specified Empowerment Technologies (which is an applied subject). They should also complete the specialization subjects of any of the following Senior High School tracks: Sports, Arts and Design or Technical-Vocational-Livelihood.
College-bound ALS learners in SHS must also complete the core subject Media and Information Literacy (or its equivalent). They must also complete all the specialization subjects in any of the Academic Strands (Accountancy, Business and Management [ABM], Humanities and Social Sciences [HUMSS], Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics [STEM], or General Academic).
The levels of difficulty have also been aligned with the grade levels of the formal school system. This is shown in the table below:
Alignment of the ALS-K to 12 Levels and the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum Grade Levels
|ALS-K to 12 Levels||K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum Grade Levels|
|Basic Literacy||Kindergarten to Grade 1|
|Lower Elementary||Grades 2 to 3|
|Advanced Elementary||Grades 4 to 6|
|Junior High School (JHS)||Grades 7 to 10|
|Senior High School (SHS)||Grades 11 to 12|
In terms of program, ALS will be offered as basic literacy program, or continuing education assessment and equivalency program.
For the basic literacy program, the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum for the Alternative Learning System (ALS-K to 12) Basic Literacy (BL) Competencies focus only on communication skills (listening, speaking, viewing, reading and writing) and numeracy. BL is equivalent to Kindergarten to Grade 1 in formal school.
The leveling of the Basic Literacy competencies was revised to focus on core competencies related to literacy macro skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking and viewing) and numeracy. At the point of curriculum implementation, competencies from the other learning strands will be used as the functional contexts for teaching these core macro skills.
Specific concepts/topics from other Learning Strands will be used as functional contents for the development of Basic Literacy (BL) skills.
For the Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E) program, the competencies are grouped by learning strand and tagged by level of difficulty as shown in Table 3 above.