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How to File an Administrative Complaint in DepEd: A Step-by-Step Guide

Understanding the administrative complaint process is crucial for educators, education professionals, and stakeholders in the Philippines. DepEd Order No. 49, s. 2006, also known as the “Revised Rules of Procedure of the Department of Education in Administrative Cases,” provides a comprehensive framework for handling administrative complaints within the Department of Education (DepEd). This article aims to provide a step-by-step guide to filing an administrative complaint under this order, ensuring that all parties involved are well-informed about the process, their rights, and responsibilities.

Overview of DepEd Order No. 49, s. 2006

DepEd Order No. 49, s. 2006 was issued to establish a fair, efficient, and effective system for addressing administrative complaints within the Department of Education. The order outlines the procedures for filing complaints, conducting investigations, and imposing penalties for various administrative offenses. It also defines the roles and responsibilities of the parties involved, including the complainant, respondent, disciplining authority, and investigating committee.

Step-by-Step Guide to Filing an Administrative Complaint

Determining if you have a valid complaint

Before filing a complaint, it is essential to determine if your grievance falls under the scope of administrative offenses covered by DepEd Order No. 49, s. 2006. These offenses include, but are not limited to:

  • Dishonesty
  • Oppression
  • Neglect of duty
  • Misconduct
  • Disgraceful and immoral conduct
  • Being notoriously undesirable
  • Discourtesy in the course of official duties
  • Inefficiency and incompetence in the performance of official duties
  • Other offenses as listed in Section 2 of the Order

Preparing the complaint

Once you have determined that you have a valid complaint, you must prepare the necessary documents and information:

  1. Required information and documents
    • Full name and address of the complainant and respondent
    • A narration of the relevant and material facts which should show the acts or omissions allegedly committed by the respondent
    • Certified true copies of documentary evidence and affidavits of witnesses, if any
    • Certification or statement of non-forum shopping
  2. Formatting guidelines
    • The complaint must be written in clear, simple, and concise language
    • It must be under oath and in the prescribed format

Where to file the complaint

Administrative complaints may be filed with the appropriate disciplining authority:

  • School Division Superintendents for cases against non-teaching personnel in their respective divisions
  • Regional Directors for cases against teachers and personnel at regional offices
  • Legal Service – Investigation Division of the Central Office for cases against Presidential appointees and employees at the Central Office

The Secretary of Education can also take cognizance of any complaint filed before any office of the Department.

What to expect after filing

  1. Preliminary investigation
    • The disciplining authority will evaluate the complaint and may dismiss it outright if it lacks merit or does not comply with the required form and content
    • If the complaint is sufficient, an investigator will be appointed to conduct a fact-finding or preliminary investigation within 10 days from receipt of the complaint
  2. Formal charge
    • If a prima facie case is established during the preliminary investigation, a formal charge will be issued by the disciplining authority
  3. Preventive suspension
    • In certain cases, the respondent may be placed under preventive suspension pending the investigation, especially if the charges involve dishonesty, oppression, grave misconduct, neglect of duty, or if there are reasons to believe that respondent is guilty of charges that would warrant removal from service
  4. Formal investigation
    • A formal investigation will be conducted by a committee appointed by the disciplining authority within 5-10 days from receipt of the respondent’s answer
    • Both parties will have the opportunity to present evidence and witnesses
    • The investigation shall be finished within 30 days, unless extended by the disciplining authority in meritorious cases

Possible outcomes and penalties

Depending on the gravity of the offense and the evidence presented, the respondent may face penalties ranging from reprimand to dismissal from service. The order also outlines the accessory penalties and effects of exoneration on imposed penalties.

The penalties are classified into grave, less grave, and light offenses, with corresponding penalties for each category and offense. The presence of mitigating, aggravating, or alternative circumstances may affect the imposition of penalties.

Rights and Responsibilities of Parties Involved


  • Must file a complaint that is sufficient in form and substance
  • Must provide evidence to support the allegations
  • Must not engage in forum shopping


  • Has the right to due process and to be assisted by counsel
  • Must submit a counter-affidavit or comment under oath within the prescribed period
  • May face preventive suspension or other penalties if found guilty

Disciplining authority

  • Evaluates the complaint and determines if it merits an investigation
  • Appoints investigators and formal investigating committees
  • Renders a decision on the case based on the evidence presented within 30 days from receipt of the Investigation Report

Investigating committee

  • Conducts the formal investigation and hearings
  • Gathers and evaluates evidence from both parties
  • Submits an Investigation Report with findings and recommendations to the disciplining authority within 15 days after concluding the investigation

Appeals Process

Grounds for appeal

  • New evidence has been discovered that materially affects the decision
  • The decision is not supported by the evidence on record
  • Errors of law or irregularities have been committed prejudicial to the interest of the appellant

Filing an appeal

  • Appeals must be filed within 15 days from receipt of the decision
  • The appellant must pay the required appeal fee of P300 and submit the necessary documents

Possible outcomes

  • The appellate authority may affirm, modify, or reverse the decision of the disciplining authority
  • Decisions of the Secretary on cases against Presidential appointees are subject to appeal to the Office of the President
  • Decisions of the Regional Director imposing a penalty exceeding 30 days suspension or fine equivalent to 30 days salary may be appealed to the Secretary, then to the Civil Service Commission


Filing an administrative complaint under DepEd Order No. 49, s. 2006 can be a complex process, but understanding the steps involved and the rights and responsibilities of all parties is essential for ensuring a fair and just resolution. By following the guidelines outlined in this article and referring to the specific provisions of the Order, educators, education professionals, and stakeholders can navigate the complaint process more effectively and contribute to maintaining the integrity and professionalism of the Department of Education.

For further information and assistance, interested parties may consult the full text of DepEd Order No. 49, s. 2006, or seek guidance from the Legal Service – Investigation Division of the Department of Education.

Mark Anthony Llego

Mark Anthony Llego, hailing from the Philippines, has made a profound impact on the teaching profession by enabling thousands of teachers nationwide to access crucial information and engage in meaningful exchanges of ideas. His contributions have significantly enhanced their instructional and supervisory capabilities, elevating the quality of education in the Philippines. Beyond his domestic influence, Mark's insightful articles on teaching have garnered international recognition, being featured on highly respected educational websites in the United States. As an agent of change, he continues to empower teachers, both locally and internationally, to excel in their roles and make a lasting difference in the lives of their students, serving as a shining example of the transformative power of knowledge-sharing and collaboration within the teaching community.

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