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The Power of Action: A Review of Related Literature on Underlying Issues in Educational Action Research

Educational action research has become a popular methodology for dealing with academic challenges on a local level. By focusing on the transformative power of action, educational practitioners and researchers can address critical pedagogical issues while improving their practice. This article provides a detailed review of related literature on underlying issues in educational action research, examining the importance of the action research process, collaboration, ethical issues, and validity concerns.

Why Action Research Matters in Education

Action research is a qualitative methodology that fosters reflection, exploration, and change in teaching practices. Teachers engage with the research process to identify problems and develop solutions, often through trial and error (Kemmis & McTaggart, 2000). The educational community can enhance its understanding and appreciation of this powerful research approach by exploring the action research process.

Uncovering Pedagogical Issues

The primary goal of action research is to uncover and address issues educators face in their practice (Cohen et al., 2018). By examining their teaching methods, structures, and student engagement, educators can identify areas for improvement and develop interventions that lead to positive change.

Continuous Professional Development

Action research is professional development that allows educators to self-reflect and improve their teaching practices (Johnson, 2012). By conducting action research, teachers can refine their skills, expand their knowledge, and apply evidence-based instructional techniques.

Adaptive Change

Action research promotes adaptive change, as educators regularly evaluate and adjust instructional strategies to meet student’s needs (Stenhouse, 1983). By employing reflective processes, teachers can learn to make informed decisions and adapt their practice to enhance student learning effectively.

Collaboration in Action Research

A key component of educational action research is collaboration. Working with students, administrators, and colleagues to conduct research allows educators to create meaningful change across the educational community.

Teacher Collaboration

Collaboration among educators is beneficial in educational action research, increasing knowledge-sharing opportunities and collective change (Nelson et al., 2012). Teachers can develop innovative solutions to address pedagogical issues by combining their expertise.

Student Involvement

By involving students in the action research process, teachers can gain valuable insights into their students’ perspectives and experiences (Fielding, 2001). Including students as research partners can improve outcomes and increase student engagement, empowerment, and ownership of their learning process.

Ethical Concerns in Educational Action Research

Although action research can lead to positive outcomes, it can also raise ethical concerns (Noffke, 1997). Researchers must carefully consider ethical implications when planning their studies.

Educators conducting action research in their classrooms must obtain informed consent from students and parents (Feldman, 2002). This process includes explaining the research’s purpose, procedures, potential risks, and benefits to all relevant parties.


Preserving the confidentiality of participants is essential in action research (Herr & Anderson, 2005). To uphold their ethical obligations, researchers must secure students’ identities and keep their research data confidential.

Role Conflicts

Educators conducting action research in their classrooms may face role conflicts, balancing their roles as teachers and researchers (Schuck & Russell, 2005). Researchers must be mindful of potential conflicts and strive to ensure that their teaching responsibilities are not compromised during the research process.

Validity Concerns in Educational Action Research

The quality and trustworthiness of an action research study are contingent on its validity. By addressing validity concerns, researchers can strengthen the credibility of their findings (Stringer, 2007).


Triangulating data from multiple sources can enhance the validity of an action research study (Denzin, 1970). Researchers can cross-check their data and minimize biases by collecting information from different perspectives.

Peer Debriefing

Peer debriefing and review can contribute to the validity of action research. By discussing their findings and methodologies with fellow researchers, educators can refine their research, identify potential biases, and enhance the rigor of their analysis (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016).


Reflexivity, or critical self-reflection on one’s research, can be a valuable tool for ensuring the validity of action research (Finlay, 2002). By systematically considering their assumptions, biases, and values, researchers can more effectively address potential threats to the validity of their findings.


Educational action research is a robust methodology that harnesses the power of action to create transformative change in educational settings. Action research can enhance the educational experience for students, teachers, and the broader community by uncovering pressing issues, fostering professional development, and promoting adaptive change. By examining underlying issues in this research approach—such as collaboration, ethical concerns, and validity concerns—educators can refine their practice and gain valuable insights to improve their classrooms.

Mark Anthony Llego

Mark Anthony Llego, hailing from the Philippines, has made a profound impact on the teaching profession by enabling thousands of teachers nationwide to access crucial information and engage in meaningful exchanges of ideas. His contributions have significantly enhanced their instructional and supervisory capabilities, elevating the quality of education in the Philippines. Beyond his domestic influence, Mark's insightful articles on teaching have garnered international recognition, being featured on highly respected educational websites in the United States. As an agent of change, he continues to empower teachers, both locally and internationally, to excel in their roles and make a lasting difference in the lives of their students, serving as a shining example of the transformative power of knowledge-sharing and collaboration within the teaching community.

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