The Department of Education (DepEd) hereby issues the enclosed “2010 Revised Manual of Regulations for Private Schools in Basic Education” (2010 Revised Manual for brevity) for the guidance and compliance of all concerned stakeholders in basic private education.
DepEd Order No. 88, s. 2010
Table of Contents
2010 REVISED MANUAL OF REGULATIONS FOR PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN BASIC EDUCATION
Directors of Services, Centers and Heads of Units
Schools Division/City Superintendents
Heads, Private Elementary and Secondary Schools
All Others Concerned
1) This Department hereby issues the enclosed “2010 Revised Manual of Regulations for Private Schools in Basic Education” (2010 Revised Manual for brevity) for the guidance and compliance of all concerned stakeholders in basic private education.
2) Any part or provision of the enclosed 2010 Revised Manual, which may be held invalid or declared unconstitutional, shall not affect the effectivity and efficiency of operation and implementation of the remaining parts or provision thereof.
3) Any existing Department Circulars, Orders, Memoranda, such as the 1992 Revised Manual of Regulations for Private Schools (8th Edition) issued as DECS Order No. 92, s. 1992 dated August 10, 1992, or any part thereof which are contrary to or inconsistent with any provision of the enclosed 2010 Revised Manual shall be deemed repealed or modified accordingly.
4) The enclosed 2010 Revised Manual of Regulations for Private Schools in Basic Education shall take effect beginning School Year 2010-2011.
5) Immediate dissemination of and strict compliance with this Order is hereby directed.
MONA D. VALISNO
2010 REVISED MANUAL OF REGULATIONS FOR PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN BASIC EDUCATION
I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Section 1. Title. This Manual shall be known as the 2010 Revised Manual of Regulations For Private Schools In Basic Education.
Section 2. Coverage. This Manual shall apply to all private educational institutions in basic education except as otherwise provided herein.
Section 3. Minimum Standards or Criteria. The standards or criteria provided in this Manual are the minimum required for government recognition, and schools may adopt higher standards or criteria consistent with laws, rules and regulations.
Section 4. Fundamental State Policies on Education. The following are the fundamental state policies relevant to private schools in basic education:
1) Education For All (EFA). The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
2) Complete Adequate and Integrated System of Education. The State shall establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society.
3) Scholarship Grants, Student Loan Programs, Subsidies. The State shall establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools especially to the underprivileged.
4) Alternative Learning Systems. The State shall encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems as well as selflearning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs. The State shall provide adult citizens the disabled and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency and other skills.
5) Constitution as Part of Curricula. All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula.
6) Inculcating Patriotism, Nationalism and Other Values. Educational institutions shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciations of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency.
7) Complementary Roles of Public and Private Institutions in the Educational System. The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions.
8) Ownership of Schools. All private schools other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens.
9) Control and Administration of Schools. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines.
10) Establishment of Schools for Aliens and Composition of Aliens in Enrollment. No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one third of the enrollment in any school. Said prohibitions do not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
11) Exemption from Taxes and Duties. All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions used actually, directly and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Likewise, subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endorsements, donations or contributions used actually, directly and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions, subject to the limitations provided by law, including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment.
12) Educational Policies and Programs. The State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs.
13) Academic Freedom. Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.
14) Right to Choose a Profession. Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable and equitable admission and academic requirements.
15) Right of Teachers to Professional Advancement. The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State.
16) Highest Budgetary Priority. The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.
Section 5. Definition of Terms. Except as otherwise provided, the terms below shall be construed as follows:
a. “Government” includes the National Government, the local governments, and all other instrumentalities, agencies or branches of the Republic of the Philippines, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries.
b. “Department” refers to the Department of Education.
c. “Secretary” refers to the Secretary of Education.
d. “Bureau of Elementary Education” refers to the Bureau which is functionally assigned to pre-school and elementary levels.
1) “Bureau of Secondary Education” refers to the Bureau which is functionally assigned to the secondary level.
2) “Bureau of Alternative Learning System” refers to the Bureau which is functionally assigned to the alternative learning system.
e. “Regional Office” refers to any of the regional offices of the Department which has jurisdiction over the school of institution concerned.
f. “School” means an educational institution, private or public, undertaking educational operations with an organized group of pupils or students pursuing defined studies at defined levels, receiving instructions from teachers, usually located in a building or group of buildings in a particular physical or cyber site recognized by the State and specifically intended for educational purposes.
1) Pre-School Course applies to any class below Grade I.
2) Primary Course applies to Grades I to IV inclusive.
3) Intermediate Course applies to Grades V to VI or VII inclusive
4) Secondary Course applies to First to Fourth Year of the High School Level.
g. “Private School” means a privately owned and managed institution for teaching and learning, established and authorized by the Department to operate certain educational programs in accordance with law and the prescribed policies and rules of the Department.
h. “Foreign or International School”, as distinguished from a Philippine private school, is one that is duly established and authorized in accordance with existing Philippine laws to operate certain educational programs which primarily and principally adhere to either universally accepted and recognized educational policies and standards or the unique differentially prescribed system of education of a particular country other than the Philippines.
1) “Integrated School” refers to a school that offers complete basic education in one school site and has unified instructional programs.
2) “Learning Center” may refer to a physical space to house learning resources and facilities, or it may be an area designated for convening a group of learners for the purpose of teaching. It is a venue for face-to-face learning activities and other opportunities for development and improvement of the people’s quality of life.
i. “Government Authority” means either a permit or recognition issued by the Department to a private school for the operation of a particular educational program.
i “Educational Program” refers to a specific course of study in any of the basic education level, that is pre-school, elementary, secondary, special education and alternative learning system with core curriculum.
k. “Department Policies and Rules” refers to the minimum standards or guidelines issued or prescribed by the Department governing the establishment of a private school, the operation of its educational programs and activities, and the management of its affairs.
l. “School Policies and Rules” means the internal governance system of each private school, including its own prescribed standards, as defined and approved by its governing body in accordance with law, and the applicable policies and rules of the Department.
m. “Members of the Community” refers to the general membership of every private school established in accordance with law and duly authorized by the Department to operate certain educational programs or courses. The term includes, either singly or collectively, the following:
1) Pupil means a child who regularly attends classes in any grade of the elementary education level, including pre-school, under the supervision and tutelage of a teacher.
2) Student means any person who is regularly enrolled and engaged in formal education studies and attends classes at the secondary or higher education levels.
3) School Personnel means the persons, singly or collectively, working in a private school. They are classified as follows:
a. “School Head” refers to the chief executive officer of a private school.
b. “Other School Officials” include other school officers, including teachers who are occupying supervisory positions of responsibility and are involved in policy implementation in a private school.
c. “Academic Personnel” includes all school personnel who are formally engaged in actual teaching service or in research assignments, either on full-time or part-time basis, as well as those who possess certain prescribed academic functions directly supportive of teaching, such as registrars, librarians, guidance counselors, researchers, and other similar persons. They may include school officials responsible for academic matters, and other school officials.
d. “Non-academic personnel” means school personnel usually engaged in administrative functions who are not covered under the definition of academic personnel. They may include school officials.
n. “Formal Education” refers to the systematic and deliberate process of hierarchically structured and sequential learning corresponding to the general concept of elementary and secondary level of schooling. At the end of each level, the learners must obtain a certification in order to enter or advance to the next level.
o. “Non-formal education” refers to any organized systematic educational activity carried outside of the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to a segment of the population.
p. “Special Education” refers to the education of persons who are physically, mentally, emotionally, socially or culturally different from so-called “normal” individuals, such that they require modification of school practices/services to develop them to their maximum capacity. Special education provides distinct services, facilities, curricula, and instructional materials, which are geared to pupils or students who are significantly higher or lower than the average or norm, on the basis of which special treatment is called for.
q. “Accreditation” means the process leading to the issuance of a certificate of accredited status by an organized body of educational institutions attesting to the quality or standards of a private school or to any of its educational programs or courses, and to the effectiveness of the management and operations of the private school offering the program as exceeding the minimum standards or criteria for government recognition as provided for in this Manual. Accreditation shall be voluntary in nature.
r. “Deregulation” is a necessary consequence of voluntary accredited status whereby the Department accords to a private school certain benefits and advantages as may be provided for in this Manual and in applicable legislation. As used in this Manual, deregulation is not considered as absolute, but represents degrees in the liberalization of rules and regulations.
II. BASIC EDUCATION
Section 6. Coverage.
6.1. Basic Education encompasses early childhood, elementary and high school education as well as alternative learning systems for out-of-school youth and adult learners and includes education for those with special needs.
6.2. Basic Education shall have five (5) main programs, namely: preschool, elementary, secondary, special needs education and alternative learning systems.
6.3. Elementary education programs shall cover at least Grades I to VI; secondary education programs from First year to Fourth year or a total of ten (10) school years in the formal school system. Pre-school shall not be a prerequisite for enrollment of a pupil to Grade I.
6.4. To ensure proper implementation of the Education For All (EFA) policy of the government, alternative learning systems shall provide for the training needs of out-of-school youths and adults, 15 years old and above.
Section 7. Administration. The administration of the educational system and the reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions shall be vested in the Department without prejudice, however, to the charter of any state university or college.
Section 8. Levels in Basic Education. Formal education shall correspond to the following levels in basic education:
a. The first level or Elementary Education involves compulsory, formal education primarily concerned with providing basic education, and usually corresponds to a traditional six or seven grade, and in addition, pre-school programs. Such pre-school education normally consists of kindergarten schooling, but may cover other preparatory courses as well.
b. The second level or Secondary Education is concerned primarily with continuing basic education of the elementary level and expanding it to include the learning of employable gainful skills, usually corresponding to four years of high school.
Section 9. Curricular Programs.
9.1. The curricular programs shall be suggestive patterns and models for the guidance of field officials and teachers. These may be enriched or modified to suit the needs of the learners and the conditions in the school and community, provided however, that any radical departure from the specified subjects and curricula shall have the approval of the Secretary of Education.
9.2 The development and organization of the curricular programs must focus on the learner’s total development. The curricula shall be based on the fundamental aims of education set forth in Article XIV Section 2 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution, B.P. Big. 232 also known as the Education Act of 1982, and other statutes.
Section 10. Major Programs in Basic Education.
10.1. Pre-School Education or Early Childhood Education. It refers to the educational program/s preparatory to Grade I to develop the child in all aspects physical, social, emotional, moral and cognitive, so that he/she may be better prepared to tackle formal school works and cope with the demands of complex life.
10.1.1. Focus of the Curriculum. The Early Childhood Education (ECE) Learning Areas include activities that develop in each child communication skills in English and Filipino, numeracy skills, sensory perceptual skills, socio-emotional skills, motor and creative skills.
10.2. Elementary Education .
Objectives. For the purpose of realizing the potentials of each and every pupil in the formal education system, the following objectives of elementary education should be realized:
a. To provide knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in, and contributing to, a developing and changing social milieu;
b. To provide learning experiences which shall increase the learner’s awareness of, and responsiveness to, the changes and demands of society and prepare him/her for constructive and effective involvement;
c. To promote and intensify the learner’s knowledge of identification with, and love for the nation and the people to which he/she belongs; and
d. To promote experiences which develop the learner’s orientation to the world of work and creativity and prepare himself/herself to engage in honest and gainful work.
10.2.1. Organization of Classes.
a. No teacher shall have a load of more than 360 minutes of actual teaching per day unless required in the Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) provided, however, that any load in excess of 360 minutes of actual teaching per day shall be given additional overtime pay of at least 25% of the regular pay, which may be increased by the CBA.
b. The maximum daily time for classroom teaching is suggested to be 320 minutes for Grades l-ll, 360 minutes for Grades III-IV and 380 minutes for Grades V-VI for regular classes.
c. Special education classes for the highly gifted and fast learners, mentally handicapped, visually impaired, hearing impaired, learning disabled, speech defective, autistic children, children with behavior or special health problems, and physically handicapped learners may be organized by the educational institution to cater to the special needs of these children.
10.2.2. Elementary Education Curriculum. Private schools shall follow the following elementary education curriculum to serve as the “core” curriculum which they may augment with additional subjects and/or with additional time.
The Elementary Education Curriculum. The basic learning areas included in the elementary curricula (Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies) are the following:
a) Edukasyon sa Kagandahang Asal at Wastong Pag-uugali. Character Education/Good Manners and Right Conduct or Edukasyon sa Kagandahang Asal at Wastong Pag-uugali shall be a separate learning area to be taught for 30 minutes daily for Grades l-lll and 20 minutes for Grades IV-VI. The rating for CE/GMRC (Character Education/Good Manners and Right Conduct) shall be included in the determination of the General Average of the pupils.
b) Filipino. The area shall provide for the development of competencies in the Filipino language specifically in speaking, reading, writing, thinking and listening.
Listening competency shall include such skills as auditory discrimination and comprehension; speaking: pronunciation, use of expressions and grammar structures; reading: vocabulary development, recognition, comprehension and study skills, and writing: handwriting skills, composition and mechanics.
Listening, speaking, reading and writing and thinking skills shall be developed in different learning situations. Literary appreciation shall be taught, among others, from Grade lll-VI.
Children shall be taught appropriate literary materials such as jingles, rhymes, poems and dialogues. Filipino shall be allotted 70 minutes daily for Grades l-lll and 60 minutes for Grades IV-VI.
c) English. This area shall provide for the development of competencies in English specifically in listening, speaking, reading, writing and thinking.
Listening competency shall include such skills as auditory discrimination and comprehension. Speaking competency shall include pronunciation, use of expressions and grammatical structures. Reading shall include vocabulary development, recognition, comprehension and study skills. Writing shall be concerned with handwriting skills, composition and mechanics. For effective teaching, the specific skills constituting these competencies shall be developed in communication situations using many and varied materials to the point of mastery. Children shall also be taught appropriate literary materials such as jingles, rhymes, poems, dialogue, etc. suited to the grade.
d) Science and Health shall aim to help the Filipino child gain functional understanding of science concepts and principles linked with real life situations. It shall also aim to help the child acquire science skills as well as scientific attitudes and values needed in solving everyday problems pertaining to health and sanitation, nutrition, food production and the environment and its conservation.
There is no Science and Health for Grades I and II but simple science and health concepts which include the child’s interaction to his immediate environment. Teaching Science and Health will formally start in Grade III using English as medium of instruction. In Grades IV-VI, more complex study of Science concepts will be taken up in preparation for High School work.
Science and Health shall be allotted 40 minutes daily for Grade III and 60 minutes for Grades IV-VI.
e) Mathematics. The study of Mathematics in Grades I, II and III shall include the four (4) fundamental operations, fractions, metric and local measurements, and the use of money and their application to practical problems based on activities in real life.
In Grades IV, V, and VI, the child shall be expected, among other things, to conceptualize the meaning of ratio and scales, maps, and graphs.
In Grades V and VI, addition and subtraction of whole numbers shall no longer be included since the children are expected to have mastered the operation should had sufficient practice in the same by Grade IV. Thus, the classes in Grades V and VI shall have more time for other skills and concepts e.g., percent, ratio and proportion.
f) Heograpiya, Kasaysayan at Sibika (Grades l-lll) This learning area shall deal with the study of the relationship of man to society and government, his role, duties, responsibilities, rights and privileges as a citizen of his country and of the whole world as well.
It shall also include the development of moral and spiritual values, and pride in one’s cultural heritage.
It shall also include the development of moral and spiritual values, pride in one’s cultural heritage, proper nutrition, desirable health habits and creative self-expression, through Music, Arts and Physical Education.
Heograpiya, Kasaysayan at Sibika (HKS) (Grades IV-VI). This area shall be a learning package composed of History, Geography and Civics. It shall deal with the study of evolution of human society with the individuals as the central figure in this process of evolution, i.e. how people, ideas and events in the past helped shape the present; how man manages the present in order to attain a desired future; and since man is the central figure of this evolution, how he must strive to develop his human potentials to enable him to live effectively in his physical, social economic, political and cultural environment.
History shall provide a time continuum of people, problems and achievements, as well as ideas and events in the past that have influenced the present. It shall treat how changes and modifications in the structure of society brought about the emergence of new, more and varied opportunities and benefits for the development of human potential.
Geography shall provide a spatial perspective of man’s physical and social environment and his ways of adapting to and managing it. It shall include physical features such as land and water forms, climate, flora and fauna, location, altitude, directions, demography and the adoption, utilization, conservation and improvement thereof.
Civics shall deal with the relationship of man and government, his role, duties and responsibilities and his rights and privileges as a citizen. Together with History and Geography, Civics shall provide many and varied experiences in which the learner shall develop feelings of pride, identity and loyalty to the country and nation transcending his pride in, identity with, and loyalty to his family, tribe or region.
g) Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP). A common learning area for boys and girls shall be taught starting Grade IV. The activities shall emphasize the development of desirable work attitudes, basic work skills and habits relevant to everyday chores at home, school and community and the production of useful articles.
It shall also cover phases of work in elementary agriculture, home economics, industrial arts, retail trade and other livelihood activities designed to develop awareness of and interest in occupational jobs.
h) Musika at Sining. Music shall aim to provide the child with the basic skills and appreciation of musical rhythm, melody, form, timbre, dynamics, tempo, texture and harmony. Art on the other hand, shall develop the basic skills and sense of aesthetic perception, creative expression and appreciation of our art heritage as well as the natural and man-made environment.
Edukasyong Pagpapalakas ng Katawan (EPK). The physical education curriculum which starts in Grade I shall give emphasis on school sports while nurturing dances, rhythm, recreation and outdoor activities in the context of Filipino culture.
The weekly time allotment of 120 minutes for EPK may be scheduled with the 90 minutes for Music and Arts periods for the week.
10.3. Special Needs Education.
Special Needs Education. It shall refer to the education of persons who are gifted or talented as well as those who have physical, mental, social or sensory impairment. Such group may require modifications of the school curricula, programs and special services and physical facilities to help them develop to their maximum capacity. These persons shall include the gifted/talented, the fast learners, the mentally retarded, the visually impaired, the hearing impaired, those with behavioral problems, and the orthopedically handicapped.
a) Special Education (SPED) shall aim to develop the maximum potential of the child with special needs to enable him to become self-reliant and shall be geared towards providing him with the opportunities for a full and happy life.
b) The ultimate goal of special education shall be the integration of learners with special needs into the regular school system and eventually in the community.
c) The curriculum for Special Needs Education shall be based on the curriculum prescribed for the regular schools by the Department and designed to respond to the special needs of the learners.
c.1. The Mentally Handicapped. The special curriculum for the mentally handicapped shall include training in self-help skills, socialization, motor and pre-vocational and vocational skills. For the more severely retarded child, emphasis shall be on the development of selfhelp skills.
c.2. The Hearing Impaired. The modified curriculum for the hearing impaired shall emphasize communication and language development. The curriculum, in addition, shall include special instruction in speech and speechreading, auditory training and rhythm. The multi-sensory approach shall be maximized and speech/speech-reading and sign language shall be encouraged in Grade I. Filipino sign language shall be used in the education of the hearing impaired.
c.3. The Visually Impaired. The modified curriculum for the visually impaired shall include sensory training, special instruction in Braille reading and writing, mathematics, orientation and mobility, Braille music, and typing.
c.4. The Orthopedically Handicapped. The curriculum for the physically handicapped child shall include functional exercises. Learning activities shall be creative and multi-dimensional. They shall make maximum use of all remaining sense modalities and shall provide for active participation in the learning process.
c.5. The Children with Behavioral Problems. The modified curriculum for children with behavioral problems shall include special activities and behavior modification techniques with emphasis on moral, civic and spiritual values as well as training in livelihood, and technical and academic skills to prepare them for the world of work.
d) The following scheme or options may be adopted for Special Needs Education program:
- Modified curriculum shall be prescribed for regular children with certain adaptations to meet the needs of special children.
- Special curriculum shall be prescribed for children with special needs aimed primarily at developing adaptive skills to maximize their potentials.
e) Special programs and provisions for the gifted, talented and creative talents shall be developed and maintained. These may take the following prototypes, singly or in combination:
Acceleration shall refer to any administrative practice designed to move gifted learners through school more rapidly than usual. Administrative practices under acceleration shall include early admission, grade skipping, advanced placement, telescoping of grade levels and credits by examination.
- Grade Acceleration/Grade Skipping. A child shall skip one (1) or two (2) grades after he/she is found to be intellectually, socially and emotionally ready to move to the higher grade. Gifted pupils who will qualify in the examinations given to the top pupils in Grade IV and V shall be promoted or accelerated to the next grade.
- Grade Telescoping. A pupil shall cover all the scope and sequence of a two-year curriculum in one (1) year or a three-year curriculum in two (2) years. The program shall enable identified gifted pupils to finish the Grades IV, V and VI curricula in two (2) years.
Ability grouping shall refer to any classification of children for instructional purposes in terms of capacity for learning and demonstrated achievement. The types of ability grouping shall be:
- Special Class/Self-Contained Classes. Children identified as gifted shall be grouped by grades and shall be taught using a curriculum adapted to their abilities, interests, and needs. All the major subject areas in the special class shall be handled as far as practicable by a SPED trained teacher. Instruction in other subjects such as Music, Arts and Crafts and Science may be handled by teachers who are specialist or experts in these areas.
- Pull-out Program. Under this scheme, gifted pupils shall be pulled out from their class to attend enrichment classes under a teacher who has experience in a particular subject. The gifted pupils may come from one grade level or from several different grades. Children with superior abilities in Math, Science, Visual Arts, Communication Arts or Performing Arts shall be pulled out from their classes and shall be provided with enrichment activities by teachers who have expertise in these learning areas.
Enrichment shall be any adaptation of the regular curriculum to provide educational experiences over and above those in the regular program. Enrichment activities do not require students to skip grades or accomplish anything earlier than usual. It may involve Saturday classes, after school services and special programs during the day in which students are placed with other gifted children in a different classroom and exposed to special and challenging activities.
10.4. Secondary Education.
Objectives shall be as follows:
a. To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education; and
b. To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the students so as to equip him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling.
10.4.1. The curricular offerings of the different types of secondary schools shall be as follows:
a. General Secondary School shall offer, essentially, a continuation of the elementary education program but designed both as college preparatory as well as terminal education for those who may not go to college.
b. General Comprehensive High School shall offer the general secondary education program as preparatory program for college. In addition, it shall provide a variety of academic and vocational electives/courses for students to choose.
c. Secondary Vocational School shall offer in addition to the general secondary program, vocational and related subjects designed to prepare students primarily for gainful employment in areas such as agriculture, fishery, trade and industry.
d. Special Secondary School shall ■ offer a high school curriculum specially designed to address the peculiar needs of special groups of students. The following schools falls under this category:
1) Science High School shall provide, in addition to a secondary education program, additional elective Science, Mathematics and English subjects for the highly gifted students who are inclined towards the sciences.
2) Science and Technology High School (STHS) shall equip highly qualified learners with knowledge, skills and attitudes relative to science and technology.
3) Science High Schoo! and Science and Technology School. The Science High School shall have an enriched Science, Mathematics and English curriculum in addition to the standard requirements of the secondary education curriculum. Emphasis shall be placed on computer literacy with typing skills and basic computer application in the first and second years and the standard industrial skills in the third and fourth years for the technology and Home Economics.
a) Mathematics in the fourth year shall include Analytical Geometry and Elementary Calculus.
b) English shall include Speech and Drama in the First year and Technical and Essay Writing in the Second Year.
c) Earth Science/Environmental Science and Physics shall be subjects in the third year, while Chemistry shall be a subject in the Fourth Year.
4) School for the Handicapped shall be a school for children who may be visually impaired, hearing impaired, mentally retarded, or orthopedically handicapped.
10.4.2. The General Secondary Curriculum. Private schools shall comply with the following General Secondary Curriculum as core curriculum in secondary education which may be augmented by additional subjects and/or by additional time for classroom instruction.
The basic subjects included in the secondary education curriculum shall be the following:
A. Makabayan Subjects
Araling Panlipunan shall be a multi-discipline subject dealing with geography, history, government, economics, development of civilization and culture of the Philippines, Asia and the World.
1) Araling Panlipunan I (Kasaysayan at Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas) shall focus on the geographical attributes that affect history and culture. It shall also deal with the study of Philippine government, Constitution and contemporary issues like population, environmental concerns, human rights and policies on foreign relations.
2) Araling Panlipunan II (Pag-aaral ng mga Bansang Asyano) shall deal with the study of geography, history, government and growth of civilization and culture of our Asian neighbors.
3) Araling Panlipunan III (Kasaysayan ng Daigdig) shall deal with the origin of the earth and human being leading to the growth of civilization. The focus of the study is Europe, World War I and II, and its causes and effects.
The growth of nations and the present global concerns like human rights, ecological balance, population and conflicts shall also be part of the topics discussed in the subject.
4) Araling Panlipunan IV (Ekonomiks) shall emphasize the fundamental principles of economics as applied to current, social and economic concerns. Macro and micro economics shall be the focus of the study. Included shall be topics on the different economic sectors and their role in the development and progress of the country. Integrated in the subject shall be the laws on taxation, land reform, and population concerns.
Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) shall provide classroom and practical work experiences in the four (4) component areas: Home Economics, Industrial Arts, Agriculture and Fishery Arts and Entrepreneurship.
1) Home Economics shall cover home and family living, housing and family economics, foods and applied nutrition and basic clothing. Practical work experiences shall include managing the household, caring for the sick, preparing and processing of food, simple sewing and other allied courses
2) Agriculture and Fishery Arts shall deal with the study of plants, animals and fish production. Practical work experiences shall cover application of technology in animal care, garden work, and fish culture, and capture and preservation.
3) Industrial Arts shall include drafting, woodworking, electricity, refrigeration, auto-mechanics, metal-works, handicrafts, electronics and other industrial activities found in the community. Practical work shall emphasize application of technology in the processing of materials, repair and maintenance of tools and equipment, fabrication of useful materials, articles, and in servicing appliances.
4) Entrepreneurship shall deal with the principles, practices, management, processes, procedures of putting up a business enterprise and the preparation for work using computer as a tool to facilitate operations in various entrepreneurial and office management activities.
Edukasyong Pangkatawan. Kalusugan at Musika. (Music, Arts, PE and Health) this subject shall consist of three (3) components namely: Physical Education, Health and Music in first to third year levels. Arts and Music shall be integrated in the first and second year levels. Citizens Army Training (CAT) shall be a component in the fourth year. Although each component shall have its own set of concepts and strategies, all lessons shall be designed to complement, relate with and enhance one another. The medium of instruction shall be English.
1) Physical Education shall be divided into four (4) units: Physical Fitness, individual, dual sports, team sports and dancing. It also includes sports officiating and sports management.
2) Health Education shall emphasize Health Services, Personal Health, Population Education, Safety Education, First Aid, Drug Education, Disease Education, Mental Health, Aging and Death, Consumers Health Education and Community Health.
3) Music shall deal with musical elements and music of different periods.
4) Arts shall give a better understanding of and sensitivity to Philippine art forms as well as those of other cultures.
5) Citizenship Advancement Training (CAT) shall train fourth year students to serve and defend the country whenever necessary. In lieu of CAT, students may choose Community Service.
Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (Values Education) shall aim to develop skills for rational thinking and value judgment in order to effect behavior change in the student. It shall use experiential learning approach and shall revolve around four (4) concepts: Pagpapahalaga sa Sarili (Valuing Self),
Pakikipagkapwa (Valuing Others), Pagkamakabansa (Valuing One’s Country), and Pagkamaka-Diyos (Valuing God). Values development shall be integrated in all subjects in the curricula.
B. Mathematics shall include the following components: Algebra, Geometry, and Statistics. The concepts shall be arranged in increasing degree of difficulty. The concepts in arithmetic shall be included in the First Year and those of trigonometry, in the Fourth Year.
C. Science and Technology shall cover the following:
1) Science and Technology I (General Science). It shall present basic concepts in Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Earth Science.
2) Science and Technology II (Biology and Technology). It shall develop understanding of man’s living world and his interaction and relationship with the environment. It shall also present biological problems related to food production, health, reproduction, heredity and conservation.
3) Science and Technology III (Chemistry and Technology). It shall study the properties of materials to determine their application to daily life. It shall also investigate the chemical changes undergone by matters and how these shall link to the environment and to society.
4) Science and Technology IV (Physics and Technology). It shall study the concepts, principles and theories of physics and their application to daily life. It shall treat of concept as basis for the interpretation and understanding of the physical phenomena.
D. English – The Secondary English program shall emphasize the development of critical thinking skills and communicative interactive competence. It shall also focus on Philippine, Asian, British-American and World Literature. It shall aim to develop the four (4) macro skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. Grammatical structure and language functions are integrated in the teaching of these skills.
E. Filipino shall aim to develop critical thinking and communicative competence (the competency to use appropriate Filipino in various communicative situations). It shall also aim to develop the four macro (4) skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, to inculcate a sense of pride in one’s cultural heritage, develop desirable values and Filipino identity. Philippine literature shall be one of the areas in the study of literature that will include the literature of Asia, Europe, America and the World’s masterpieces.