Philippine Informal Reading Inventory Phil-IRI Manual 2018
The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory Manual 2018
The Phil-IRI is an informal reading inventory composed of graded passages designed to determine the individual student’s performance in oral reading, silent reading and listening comprehension. This manual provides information on the proper administration of the 2018 Phil-IRI.
Download 2018 Phil-IRI Manual: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1bKcK2N7jF54ATL5OhP7-rP_ABQ8JW0U6
- determine the individual student’s performance in oral reading, silent reading and listening comprehension
- design or adjust classroom, small group or individualized instruction to fit the students’ needs and abilities
- provide an approximation of the students’ abilities and could be used in combination with other reliable tools of assessment
- serve as one of the bases in planning, designing/redesigning the reading programs or activities in the school to improve the overall school reading performance.
A. ESSENTIAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PHIL-IRI
1. What is the Phil-IRI?
The Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI) was created to provide classroom teachers a tool for measuring and describing reading performance. It is an assessment tool composed of graded passages designed to determine a student’s reading level. It is important to note that the Phil-IRI only provides an approximation of the learner’s abilities and may be used in combination with other reliable tools of assessment.
2. Why was the Phil-IRI developed?
The development of the Phil-IRI is one of the initiatives put in place in support of the Every Child A Reader Program (ECARP). Before teachers can design and provide appropriate reading instruction for their students, they should be armed with information about their students’ current reading levels and abilities. This diagnostic approach to describing how children read embraces inclusionary principles that emphasize the need for education that is learner-oriented, responsive and culturally sensitive. The Phil-IRI is one of the diagnostic tools that teachers can use to determine students’ abilities and needs in reading.
3. What adjustments were made in the Phil-IRI selections?
The Revised Phil-IRI was prepared in early 2013, prior to the introduction of the K-12 Curriculum. The readability level of the selections for oral and silent reading were based on the old English and Filipino curricula and were validated to pupils who were products of these old curricula; they were taught to read in Filipino and in English starting in Grade 1.
Under the K-12 curriculum, the pupils are introduced to Reading in Filipino during the first semester of Grade 2 while Reading in English is introduced during the second semester.
For example, the curriculum in Phonics and Word Recognition for Grade 2 English during the second semester is reading short e, a and i words in consonant-vowel-consonant pattern. By Grade 3, the curricular offering under word recognition is as follows:
|First Quarter||Second Quarter||Third Quarter||Fourth Quarter|
|Read words with short o and u sounds in CVC pattern and common sight words; read 2-syllable words consisting of short e to u sound (e. g.: basket, hotdog, sunset).||Read words with initial consonant blends (l, r and s blends) followed by short vowel sounds, read words with initial and Anal consonant digraph ch and sh.||Read words with long a, i, o and u sound (ending in e) one syllable and 2-syllables.||Read words with vowel digraphs ai (pail), ay (bay), ea (lead), ee (seed; read words with vowel diphthongs oy (boy), oi (boil), ou (out) and ow (bow); read some irregularly spelled words (e.g. such as enough, through, beautiful).|
Aside from adjusting the readability level of the Phil-IRI selections based on the present curriculum, the Phil-IRI constructed in 2013 was revalidated to the present group of learners in 2016 to give a better assurance that the readability levels of the selections are appropriate for the grade levels for which they are assigned. Nineteen schools, each representing a particular Mother Tongue, were chosen for the revalidation. Phil-IRI Filipino was administered to Grade 3 and 4 pupils while Phil-IRI English was administered to Grade 4 and 5 pupils. The MTB-MLE coordinator/Master teacher/the subject teacher in Filipino and English/ the class adviser who had a training in ELLN conducted the revalidation.
The result of the examination of the literacy curriculum in both English and Filipino as well as the revalidation were the bases for adjusting the Phil-IRI selections both in the Screening Test and the Pretest and Posttest.
4. What can Phil-IRI tell the teachers?
The Phil-IRI Group Screening Test (GST) can tell teachers whether students are reading at, above, or below their grade levels. The individually administered Phil-IRI Graded Passages can be used to assess students’ Oral Reading, Silent Reading Comprehension and/or Listening Comprehension levels.
When used to assess oral reading skills, the Phil-IRI may be used to describe decoding and word recognition, fluency and comprehension. The student’s performance in decoding (the ability to read isolated words using phonics knowledge) and word recognition (the ability to automatically identify words on sight) is measured through a Reading Miscue Inventory (Phil-IRI Form 3A and 3B: Grade Level Passage Rating Sheet). The child is asked to read a passage and each word read incorrectly is noted and marked. In terms of fluency (the ability to read with speed, accuracy and prosody), the time taken by the child to read a passage is recorded and the number of words that he/she can read per minute is computed. Furthermore, a qualitative description of the child’s manner of reading is described via a checklist. Finally, test taker’s comprehension skills (the ability to create meaning) may be gauged by having the child answer five to eight questions of varying difficulty based on the graded passage after it has been read.
When used to assess Silent Reading Comprehension, Phil-IRI may be used to describe reading speed and comprehension. The student’s reading speed is measured by recording the time it takes the child to read each passage completely. Silent reading comprehension is measured by asking the student to answer five to eight questions of varying difficulty after a passage has been read.
When used to assess listening comprehension, the Phil-IRI may be used by having the student listen to the passages as they are read by the test administrator and answer five to eight questions of varying difficulty about each passage.
For all three types of individual assessments (oral reading comprehension, listening comprehension and silent reading comprehension), the aim is to find the learner’s independent, instructional and frustration levels, so that teachers know what level of reading materials the student can read and understand well, as well as what level of reading materials the student is not ready for.
Since the Phil-IRI is administered at the start and at the end of the school year, it can also tell teachers about the growth and changes in students’ reading skills and levels.
5. What are flexible ways to use Phil-IRI?
The Phil-IRI may be used to:
a. Group Reading Level
The Phil-IRI GST can be used to determine a whole class’ reading level, and identify particular students who may need more assistance in performing reading tasks.
b. Individual Reading Level
The individually administered Phil-IRI Graded Passages can be used to determine a student’s independent, instructional and frustration levels for three types of literacy tasks: Oral Reading, Silent Reading, and Listening Comprehension.
c. Monitor Growth and Response to Intervention
Pretest and Posttest results of the Phil-IRI can be compared to monitor growth in students’ reading skills, as well as determine the efficacy of the program or reading interventions conducted by the school and/or classroom teachers.
d. Describe Reading Behaviors
The recording of the student’s oral reading behaviors during the conduct of the individually administered Phil-IRI Graded Passages can help the teacher describe a student’s reading performance and behavior. It specifies the number of words read per minute, the cues used for identifying or recognizing words, manner of reading, etc. Types of miscues as well as types of comprehension questions answered correctly can also be analyzed by the teacher to help him/her design appropriate reading lessons or interventions.
6. Who needs to take the Phil-IRI?
All students in Grades 3 to 6 will undergo the Phil-IRI Group Screening Test (GST) in Filipino, while students in Grades 4 to 6 will undergo the GST in English. Students identified to be performing below level of expectation (those with a total Raw Score below 14 in the Phil-IRI GST) should undergo further assessment through the individually administered Phil-IRI graded passages.
7. When should the Phil-IRI be administered?
The following table below shows the administration schedule of Group Screening Test and the Individualized Phil-IRI assessments. Group assessments must be conducted within class time while Individual assessments may be conducted outside class hours.
Table 1. Schedule of Phil-IRI Administration
8. How long does it take to administer the Phil-IRI?
The administration of the Phil-IRI GST for a whole class takes approximately 30 minutes. The time it takes to administer the Phil-IRI Graded Passages would vary for each student.
9. Who can administer the Phil-IRI?
All Filipino subject teachers for Grades 3 to 6 and English subject teachers for Grades 4 to 6 can administer the Phil-IRI Group Screening Tests in their respective classes. ELLN-trained teachers can administer the Phil-IRI Graded Passages to individual students who need further assessment.The region and/or division can also conduct training programs to teachers on the conduct of the Phil-IRI. Teachers who will administer the Phil-IRI should read the manual thoroughly and prepare all the necessary materials and forms prior to the scheduled date of test administration.
10. How do we get a copy of the Phil-IRI materials?
The Phil-IRI materials will be uploaded to the Learning Resource Management Development System (LRMDS) portal of the DepEd website which can be downloaded by the teachers, school heads and education supervisors. Schools are advised to use the MOOE funds for the reproduction and distribution of the materials to teachers.
B. DESCRIPTION OF THE PHIL-IRI TESTING KIT
The Phil-IRI Testing Kit consists of the Manual of Administration; Group Screening Tests for both Filipino and English; Graded Passages with Comprehension Questions; and the Phil-IRI Forms.
1. Manual of Administration
The manual includes information about the Phil-IRI, the directions for the administration of the test, and instructions for recording and reporting results. It serves as a guide to teachers, principals and supervisors in administering the tests as well as in recording results.
The manual should be studied carefully before administering the Phil-IRI Tests. The mechanics of administration are the same for both Filipino and English. Thus, only one manual will be printed for both languages. The manual also contains the Keys to Correction for both the Group Screening Tests and the Phil-IRI Graded Passages in Filipino and English.
2. The Phil-IRI Group Screening Test
The Phil-IRI Group Screening Test (GST) is a silently-administered test in both Filipino and English. Each tool is composed of a 20-item comprehension test based on a set of leveled passages for each grade level covering Grades 3 to 6 in Filipino and Grades 4 to 6 in English. The passages were written and selected based on concept load, level of vocabulary used, sentence complexity, nature of themes and cohesion.
In consideration of Abadzi’s1 (2014) recommendations on the kind and size of font and spacing options in between letters used in textbooks, the font features in Table 2 were followed in the design of the tools.
Table 2: Font Size Used for the Passages for each Grade Level
The objective of the GST is to identify students who need further testing. Appendix A1 to A4 presents the titles of passages, kinds of text, and number of questions per passage, as well as the Keys to Correction for the GST for Grades 3 to 6 in Filipino and Grades 4 to 6 in English respectively.
3. The Phil-IRI Graded Passages (Sets A, B, C and D)
The Phil-IRI Graded Passages is an informal individualized assessment tool used to record the student’s performance in oral reading, silent reading and/or listening comprehension.
The Phil-IRI Oral Reading Test is administered in order to:
- identify the student’s miscues in oral reading;
- record the number of words that a student reads per minute; and
- And out how well a student understands the passage read.
The Phil-IRI Listening Comprehension is administered when the student is identified as a nonreader. The purpose is to And out how well a student understands the selection which will be read by the test administrator.Then the test administrator reads the multiple choice questions and the student answers them orally.
The Phil-IRI Silent Reading Test may be administered after the Oral Reading Test is conducted to further check the student’s comprehension skill. This is an optional activity.
The Graded Passages range from Grade 2 to Grade 7 Readability levels for English and Grade 1 to Grade 7 Readability levels for Filipino. The selections for Grade 2 to Grade 4 are narrative texts, while those from Grades 5 to 7 are expository texts. The expository texts in Filipino deal with Social Studies concepts, while those in English focus on Science concepts.
Phil-IRI Graded Passages are both in Filipino and English. For both languages, there are four sets (Sets A, B, C and D) of passages with a readability level of Grade 2 to Grade 7 to be used for the pre-test. Similarly, there are also four sets (Sets A, B, C and D) of posttest graded passages. The pre-test and the posttest for each grade level are comparable in the following: number of words, concept load, level of vocabulary used, sentence complexity, nature of themes and cohesion. Appendix A5 to A12 presents the titles of passages used for the Phil-IRI Graded Passages (Pre-Test and Post Test) in both Filipino and English.
4. The Phil-IRI Forms
a. Phil-IRI Forms for Group Screening Test
1) Phil-IRI Form 1A: Talaan ng Pangkatang Pagtatasa ng Klase (PPK) sa Phil-IRI
The Phil-IRI Form 1A is to be used for the GST in Filipino. The objectives of completing and submitting this form include the following: a) to identify the types of questions (literal, inferential or critical) that each child can answer; b) to classify the students to be recommended for administration of the Phil-IRI tests, c) to capture the reading performance of the class, thus design appropriate classroom instruction. This form includes the class list, the itemized scores of the students according to the types of questions answered, and their total score. A sample of this form is shown in Appendix B1.
2) Phil-IRI Form 1B: Summary of the Phil-IRI Group Screening Test Class Reading Record (CRR)
This form has the same content and objectives as the Phil-IRI Form 1A. Phil-IRI Form 1B is to be used for the GST in English. A sample of this form is shown in Appendix B2.
3) Phil-IRI Form 2: Talaan ng Paaralan sa Pagbabasa / School Reading Profile (SRP)
This form presents a summary of a school’s performance in the GST. Furthermore, it shows the school’s reading profile, which includes the number of students who are reading at their level (test scores > 14 out of 20 items), and those who are in need of further Phil-IRI administration (test scores < 14). A sample of this form is shown in Appendix C.
b. Phil-IRI Forms for Graded Passages
1) Phil-IRI Form 3A: Markahang Papel ng Panggradong Lebel na Teksto / Phil-IRI Form 3B: Grade Level Passage Rating Sheet
This form is the rating sheet with the passage to be read (either orally or silently by the student, or orally by the teacher). The teacher indicates the time spent by the student in reading the passage. Likewise, the student’s miscues are marked and summarized, and the comprehension responses are recorded in this form. This form will yield the speed and rate in reading, and the reading level for the passage in both word reading and comprehension. A sample of these forms are shown in Appendix D1 and D2.
2) Phil-IRI Form 4: Talaan ng Indibidwal na Pagbabasa / Individual Summary Record (ISR)
This form summarizes the performance and level of each learner in word reading and comprehension in all the administered Phil-IRI. It also indicates the oral reading behaviors exhibited by the student. A sample of this form is shown in Appendix E.
C. General Directions for Administration: The Four Stages
There are four stages in the administration of the Phil-IRI. Figure 1 on the next page presents the four stages, namely:
Stage 1: Initial Screening Using the Phil-IRI Group Screening Test Stage 2: Administration of the Phil-IRI Graded Passages (Pre-test)
Stage 3: Provision of Specialized Instruction/Intervention
Stage 4: Administration of the Phil-IRI Graded Passages (Post Test)
Figure 1: Stages in the Administration of Phil-IRI
For SY 2018-2019, the Phil-IRI Group Screening Test (GST) in Filipino must be administered to Grade 3 to 6 students while the GST in English must be administered to the Grade 4 to 6 students on the first month of the school year. It is a 20-item multiple choice test that the test takers must accomplish within 30 minutes. This should be administered during class time. By the end of July, the learner must have completed 2 tests (1 in English; 1 in Filipino).
Upon completion of the administration of the GST, the Class Reading Reports are submitted to the Principal. These contain a summary of the students who performed equal or above and below the cut-off score. Refer to Appendix B1, Form 1A: Talaan ng Pangkatang Pagtatasa ng Klase (PPK) sa Phil-IRI for Filipino or Appendix B2, Form 1B: Class Reading Report (CRR) for English.
As shown on Figure 1, students who garner a Raw Score that is equal to or greater than 14 (75%) need not undergo further testing. The first stage is done for these students.
However, students who garner a Raw Score that is lower than 14 (74%) need to undergo further assessment, as this may be an indication that the student is experiencing difficulty reading at-level text. It is thus necessary to conduct individualized assessment in order to further describe the child’s reading performance. The learners will be assessed using the Phil-IRI Graded Passages. If a student garners a score of 13 and below in the Filipino GST, s/he will be given the Filipino Graded Passages Pre-Test. If the student garners a score of 13 or below in the English GST, s/he will be given the English Graded Passages Pre-Test. Note that it is possible for a student to undergo the Phil-IRI Graded Passages in one or both languages.
STAGE 2: Administration of the Phil-IRI Graded Passages (Pre-Test)
The Phil-IRI Graded Passages Pre-Tests have a total of four parallel sets (SETS A to D) that the test-administrator can choose from. The administration of the Phil-IRI should begin with the Oral Reading Test. Figure 2 presents the steps for Stage 2 in greater detail.
Step 1: Determine the Starting Point of Graded Passages.
The first passage that the child should be asked to read aloud must depend on the child’s raw score in the GST.
a. If the child’s raw score in the GST is 0-7, he/she must be given a passage that is 3 grade levels below his current level.
b. If the child’s raw score in the GST is 8-13, he/she must be given a passage that is 2 grades below his current level.
To illustrate, if Pedro, a 5th grader, garnered a Raw Score of 6/20 in the Filipino GST, the first selection that he must be asked to read should be at 2nd grade level. Once the first selection to be read has been identified, the test administrator is ready for Step 2.
Step 2: For each passage, compute scores in Word Reading and Comprehension to identify student’s Reading Levels (pages 21-29 details the procedures for computing the Word Reading and Comprehension scores).
Using these graded passages, the test administrator must And the student’s independent, instructional and frustration levels. Awareness of a child’s reading levels can help the teacher identify materials that are suitable for developing the learner’s reading skills.
- Finding the independent level means that we are looking for the grade level passage that the child can read on his/her own without any assistance. To And the independent level, the test administrator continues to give a selection that is one level lower than a given selection until the child is able to register performance at 97 to 100% in word reading and 80 to 100% comprehension. It is important to And the independent level so that we know the kind of text that the child is already able to perform well in. Providing material at the independent level may serve as a source of motivation or as a starting point for instruction.
- Finding the instructional level means that we are looking for the grade level passage that the child can read with the support of a teacher. This is the level where students make the most progress in reading. To And the instructional level, the test administrator continues to give a selection that is one level higher than the independent level passage until the learner is able to register performance at 90 to 96% in word reading and 59 to 79% in comprehension.
- Finding the frustration level means that we are looking for the grade level passage that the child can no longer read and understand on his own. To And the frustration level, the test administrator continues to give a selection that is one level higher than the instructional level passage until the learner’s oral reading score performance is at 89% and below in Word Reading and 58% and below in Comprehension. It is important to identify the frustration level so that we are aware of the kind of material that the student is not yet ready for.
To illustrate, let us continue with our hypothetical 5th grade learner named Pedro. The test administrator gave Pedro a 2nd grade passage, and his performance registered at the independent level for that passage. The test administrator then gave him a higher level passage (3rd grade) and Pedro’s performance registered at the instructional level. Finally, the test administrator gave him a text that is a grade level higher (4th grade), where his performance registered at the frustration level. The test administrator now has Pedro’s independent, instructional and frustration levels. He can proceed to Step 3.
Step 3: Administer Listening Comprehension Test (Stage 2a) and Silent Reading Test (Stage 2b). Note that both stages are optional.
After administering the Oral Reading Test, if there is a need to describe the performance of the child when the reading task is lifted (i.e. especially when the students have been identified to be non-readers), the Listening Comprehension Test may be administered. The process of finding the independent, instructional and frustration levels are the same except that the passages are no longer read by the student and instead are read by the test administrator. After each selection has been listened to, the test administrator reads the multiple choice questions that the students must respond to orally.
After administering the Listening Comprehension Test, if there is a need to describe the performance of the child when doing the reading task on his/her own, the Silent Reading Comprehension Test may be administered. The process of finding the independent, instructional and frustration levels are the same except that the time it takes for the student to finish reading each passage is recorded by the test administrator. After each selection has been read, the test administrator reads the multiple choice questions that the students must respond to orally.
STAGE 3: Provision of Specialized Instruction/Reading Intervention
Once all the data describing the child’s reading performance has been gathered, the teacher may use this information to design an intervention program (i.e. remedial reading program) or adjust classroom instruction.
(see Appendix H for a full discussion of the Handbook on Suggested Intervention)
STAGE 4: Administration of the Phil-IRI Graded Passages (Posttest)
After receiving specialized instruction, the students will be re-assessed using the Phil-IRI Posttest Forms. The Phil-IRI Posttests have a total of 4 parallel sets (SETS A-D) that the test-administrator can choose from. Using these graded passages, the test administrator must again identify the student’s independent, instructional and frustration levels. The posttest results may be compared with the pre-test results.
D. Specific Directions for the Administration of the Phil-IRI Group Screening Test
This section details the specific instructions for the Group Screening Test and the individually administered Graded Passages accordingly. For general reminders on the conduct and interpretation of assessment and assessment results, please see Appendix G.