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Legislative and Executive Issuances on Education in the Philippines

The 1987 Philippine Constitution lays down the foundation of the Philippine education system and protects the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels.

The table below summarizes significant reforms enacted into law toward attaining constitutional provisions, national goals, and international commitments for SDG 2030.

Major Education Laws

Table 1: Legislative and Executive Issuances on Education

Legislative and Executive Issuances/DateShort TitleSalient Features
RA 7722
May 18, 1994
Higher Education ActAn act creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) that separates colleges and universities from the Department of Education, providing its own independence, having the right to practice academic freedom and exercise such policies granted for its benefits.
RA 7796
August 25, 1994
TESDA ActCreation of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) to promote and strengthen the quality of technical education and skills development.
RA 8545
February 24, 1998
GASTPE LawProvide the mechanisms to improve quality in private education by maximizing the use of existing resources of private education, recognizing in the process the government’s responsibility to provide basic elementary and secondary education, post-secondary vocational and technical education and higher education as having priority over its other functions.
RA 9155
August 11, 2001
Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001Renamed agency from the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to Department of Education (DepEd);

Stressed the importance of shared governance between and among the national/ central, regional, and division offices.

Institutionalization of Kindergarten Education, i.e. Kindergarten as mandatory and made an integral part of the basic education system;

Enacted โ€œin consonance with the Millennium Development Goals on achieving Education for All (EFA) by the year 2015โ€;

Adoption of the mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) program.
DO 16, s 2012
February 17
Mother Tongue-Based- Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE)Guidelines on the Implementation of the Mother Tongue-Based- Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE)
EO 83, s. 2012Institutionalization of the Philippine Qualifications FrameworkObjectives of PQF:

Adopt national standards and levels for outcomes of education;

Enable accessibility/flexibility/mobility in education, training, labor, and other industries;

Align with international QF.

Took off from the Social Reform Agenda (SRA) embodied in EO 43 dated May 13, 2011.
RA 10410
March 6, 2013
Early Years Act (EYA) of 2013Recognition of 0-8 years as the first crucial stage of educational development;

Strengthening of the Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) system.
RA 10533
May 15, 2013
Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013Defined Enhance Basic Education Programs as encompassing the following number of years in education:

At least 1 year of Kindergarten;

6 years of elementary;

6 years of secondary which includes 4 years of junior high school and 2 years of senior high school.
RA 10627
September 12, 2013
Anti-Bullying Act of 2013All elementary and secondary schools are directed to adopt policies to address the existence of bullying in their respective institutions.
RA 10647
November 21, 2014
Ladderized Education ActInstitutionalize the ladderized interface between technical-vocational education and training (TVET) and higher education to open the pathways of opportunities for career and educational progression of students and workers, create a seamless and borderless system of education, empower students and workers to exercise options or to choose when to enter and exit in the educational ladder, and provide job platforms at every exit as well as the opportunity to earn income.
RA 10665
July 9, 2015
Open High School System ActBroaden access to relevant quality education through the employment of an alternative secondary education program that will enable the youth to overcome personal, geographical, socioeconomic, and physical constraints, to encourage them to complete secondary education.
DepEd Order No. 52, s. 2015
October 30
New Organizational Structures of the Central, Regional, and Schools Division Offices of the Department of EducationImplementation of the DepEd Rationalization Plan (RatPlan) as approved by the Department of Budget and Management on November 15, 2013;

Issued pursuant to RA 9155 and EO 66, s. 2004.
DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2016
June 30
National Assessment of Student LearningPolicy Guidelines for the National Assessment of Student Learning for the K to 12 Basic Education Program.
DepEd Order 10, s. 2016
February 19
Policy and Guidelines for the Comprehensive Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools (WinS) ProgramAims to ensure correct knowledge and understanding among learners of effective hygiene and sanitation projects; improve equitable access to safe water, adequate toilets, and hand washing facilities; improve hygiene and sanitation practices among the learners to enable them to develop life-long positive hygiene and sanitation behaviors; ensure that schools are kept clean and safe through school-based solid waste management, proper drainage, the elimination of breeding grounds for mosquitoes to prevent vector-borne diseases, and food sanitation; and engage public and private partners for program implementation and sustainability.
DO 32 s. 2017, June 29Gender-Responsive Basic Education PolicyDepEd commits to integrating the principles of gender equality, gender equity, gender sensitivity, non-discrimination, and human rights, in the provision and governance of basic education.
RA 10931
August 3, 2017
Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education ActThe Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act is a law in the Philippines that institutionalizes free tuition and exemption from other fees in state universities and colleges, local universities, and colleges in the Philippines.
RA 10968
January 16, 2018
Philippine Qualifications Framework ActInstitutionalize the Philippine Qualifications Framework to encourage lifelong learning of individuals, provide employees specific training standards, ensure that training and education institutions comply with specific standards and are held accountable for achieving corresponding learning outcomes and provide government with a common taxonomy and qualifications typology as bases for recognizing education and training programs as well as the qualifications formally awarded and their equivalents.
RA 11206
February 14, 2019
Secondary School Career Guidance and Counseling ActInstitutionalize a career guidance and counseling program;

Equip secondary education students with the capability to make educated career decisions and expose them to relevant labor markets;

Ensure graduates of tertiary education meet the requirements of the government, industry and the economy.
DO 21 s. 2019
August 22
Policy Guidelines on the K to 12 Basic Education ProgramArticulates the context, features and programs of the K to 12 program across key stages;

Provides a framework for monitoring and evaluation, as well as a reference point for ongoing/future review of any of the components of the program.
RA 11510
December 23, 2020
Alternative Learning System ActProvide the out-of-school children in special cases and adults with opportunities to improve their knowledge, values, life skills, and readiness for higher education, work, or self-employment through a system of nonformal or indigenous education, or both which are tailored to respond to their learning needs and life circumstances.

Related Issuances

Aside from education-specific issuances, other laws and policies issued over the past decade have important implications on the country’s education system. Some of these are highlighted below.

Table 2: Selected Laws and Issuances with implications on Education

Legislative and Executive Issuances/DateShort TitleSalient Features
RA 10173
August 15, 2012
Data Privacy Act of 2012Provides for the protection to individuals from unauthorized processing of personal information, โ€œthe fundamental human right of privacy, of communication, while ensuring free flow of information to promote innovation and growthโ€
Philippine Commission on Women, National Economic and Development Authority, Department of Budget and Management Joint Circular No. 2012-01Guidelines for the
Preparation of Annual
Gender and Development (GAD) Plans and Budgets and Accomplishment
Reports to Implement the
Magna Carta of Women
Mandating all agencies to allocate at least five percent (5%) of their annual budget appropriations to support their respective Gender and Development Programs, Activities and Projects
RA 10679
August 27, 2015
Youth Entrepreneurship ActEstablish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education and training to encourage the entrepreneurial spirit among our youth as well as support and promote the growth of young entrepreneurs nationwide.
RA 10821
May 18, 2016
Children’s Emergency Relief and Protection ActEstablish and implement a comprehensive and strategic program of action to provide the children and pregnant and lactating mothers affected by disasters and other emergency situations with utmost support and assistance necessary for their immediate recovery and protection against all forms of violence, cruelty, discrimination, neglect, abuse, exploitation and other acts prejudicial to their interest, survival, development and well-being.
EO 5, s. 2016
October 11, 2016
AmBisyon Natin 2040 as Guide for Development PlanningStatement of 25-Year Long Term Vision: โ€œBy 2040, the Philippines shall be a prosperous, predominantly middle-class society where no one is poor; our people shall live long and healthy lives, be smart and innovative and shall live in a high-trust societyโ€, translated in Filipino as having a โ€œMatatag, Maginhawa, at Panatag na Buhay.โ€
RA 11037
June 20, 2018
Masustansyang Pagkain para sa Batang Pilipino Act (Healthy Food for Filipino
Children Act)
Establish a comprehensive national feeding program that will address the problem of undernutrition among Filipino children
RA 11054
July 26, 2018
Organic Law for the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim MindanaoProvided for the establishment of the autonomous political entity known as the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region, replacing the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
RA 11230
February 22, 2019
Tulong Trabaho ActProvide for more innovative approaches to TVET linked to the requirement of industry to primarily address unemployment and job-skill mismatch
RA 11310
April 17, 2019
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino
Program (4Ps) Act
In pursuit of providing universal primary education, conditional cash transfers to poor families are granted for the enrollment of their children

A recent development that potentially affects national and local revenue generation, planning, budgeting, and coordination is the Supreme Court decision on the Mandanas Case.

Traditionally, the bulk of resources of LGUs for education currently comes from the Special Education Fund (SEF), which is an additional 1% of the Real Estate tax, based on the Local Government Code of 1991.

With this significant change, LGUs can have a bigger stake in providing educational inputs and implementing programs, projects, and activities. DepEd may also take this opportunity to study redefining its mandate to start focusing on standard setting and monitoring once this ruling is implemented.

READ:

The Education Situation of Vulnerable Groups in the Philippines

Legal Bases of the Philippine Educational System

A History of the System of Education in the Philippines โ€“ Its Implication for the Present Generation

Addressing Gaps in DepEd Developed Learning Resources

Classroom Shortages in the Philippines

The Importance of a School-Based Management System (SBM)

Jasper Klint de la Fuente

High School Teacher ๐Ÿ‘ฉ๐Ÿฝโ€๐Ÿซ๐ŸŽ| Lifelong Learner ๐Ÿ“š| Passionate about developing the next generation of leaders ๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ’ป๐ŸŽ“

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