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DepEd Manual Reviewer

CHAPTER III: Basic Education
Terms, Notations and Important Concepts

1. Basic Education

It has three (3) main programs; elementary, secondary and non-formal.

2. Curricular programs

These are suggestive patterns and models for the guidance of the field and teachers.

3. Notes on the Basis of Curricular Programs

  • 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section 2
  • Education Act of 1982
  • DECS vision and mission
  • Other official statutes

4. Notes on the Objectives of Elementary Education

  • To provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes and values essential to the personal development and necessary for living in, and contributing to, a developing and changing social milieu.
  • To provide learning experiences which increase the learner’s awareness of, and responsiveness to, the changes and demands of the society and prepare him/her for constructive and effective involvement.
  • Top promote and intensify the learner’s knowledge of, identification with, and love for the nation and the people to which he/she belongs.
  • To promote experiences which develop the learner’s orientation to the world of work and prepare himself/herself to engage in honest and gainful work.

5. Notes on the Organization of Classes in the Elementary Grades

  • Generally, in the primary grades, one (1) teacher shall handle all the subjects in one (1) class with a maximum of fifty-six (56) pupils. ( D.O. No. 26, s. 1995)
  • In the intermediate grades, the departmental system may be adopted following a 5:4 or 3:2 plan ratio of teachers to classes.
  • No teacher shall have a load of more than 360 minutes of actual teaching per day (M.O. No. 6, s. 1982)
  • The maximum of daily contact time shall be 300 minutes (Grades I and II), 340 minutes (Grade III), 360 minutes (Grade IV) and 380 minutes (Grade V and VI) for regular classes.
  • Mobile and/or multi-grade classes shall be organized to cater for the needs of school children in distant and difficult-to-reach communities when there are insufficient numbers of enrollees per grade or when not enough teachers are available.

6. Acceleration

It refers to any administrative practice designed to move gifted learners through school more rapidly than usual.

7. Grade acceleration / Grade skipping

A child skips one (1) or two (2) grades after he/she has been found to be intellectually, socially and emotionally ready to be moved to the higher grade.

8. Grade telescoping

A pupil covers all the scope and sequence of a two-year curriculum in one (1) year or a three-year curriculum in two (2) years.

9. Ability grouping

Is any classification of children for instructional purposes in terms of capacity for learning and demonstrated achievement. The types of ability grouping are;

  • Special class / Self-contained class
    Children who have been earlier identified as gifted are grouped by grades and are taught using curriculum adapted to their abilities, interest and needs.
  • Pull-out Program
    Under this scheme, the gifted are pulled out from their class to attend enrichment classes under a teacher who has expertise in the particular subject.

10. Enrichment

It refers to any adaptation of regular curriculum to provide educational experiences over and above those in the regular program. It does not require students to skip grades or accomplish anything earlier than usual.

11. Notes on Pre-school Education or Early Childhood Education

Objectives ( D.O. No. 107, s. 1989)

a. To develop the child in all aspects, so that he/she may be better prepared to adjust and cope with life situations within the context of his/her experience.
b. To maximize the child’s fullest potential through a variety of carefully selected and meaningful experiences considering his or her interests and capabilities.

12. Notes on the General Guidelines on Pre-school Education or Early Childhood Education

  • School divisions are encouraged to establish public pre-school classes whenever possible to provide the early childhood stimulation needed by children during their formative years.
  • In schools where the Grade I pupils have not been provided by pre-school education, the eight-week curriculum on early childhood experiences shall be provided.
  • Organized pre-school classes may have a minimum of twenty (20) and a maximum of forty (40) pupils to a class.
  • A pre-school teacher may be allowed to handle a maximum of two (2) classes, one (1) in the morning and one (1) in the afternoon.

13. Curricular offerings of the different types of Secondary Schools

  • General Secondary School
    It offers a continuation of the elementary education program but designed both as college preparatory as well as terminal education who may not go to college.
  • General Comprehensive High School
    It offers the secondary education program as preparatory program for college. In addition, it provides a variety of academic and vocational electives/courses for the students to choose.
  • Secondary Vocational School
    In addition to the general secondary program, vocational and related subjects designed to prepare students primarily for gainful employment in areas as agriculture, fishery, trade and industry.
  • Special Secondary School
    It offers a high school curricula specially designed to address the peculiar needs of special groups of students.


  • Regional Division Science High School
    It provides an addition to the secondary education program, additional elective in Science, mathematics and English subjects for the highly gifted students who are inclined towards sciences. There shall be one R/DSHS for each region/division (D.O. No. 69, s. 1993).
  • Science and Technology High School
    It equips highly qualified learners with knowledge, skills and attitudes relative to science and technology.
  • Science High School and Science and Technology School
    It has an enriched Science, Mathematics and English curriculum in addition to the standard requirements of the secondary education curriculum.
  • Special Science Curriculum in the Network of S&T Oriented High Schools
    It provides enrichment materials for science and technology, mathematics, earth Science in selected existing general high schools (D.O. No. 128, s. 1993)
  • School for the Handicapped
    It is a school for children who may either be visually impaired, hearing impaired, mentally retarded, or orthopedically handicapped.
  • Boys’ Town School
    It is a government school for orphans, the homeless and other underprivileged boys.
  • The School for Minor Offenders
    This correctional high school takes care of the minor offenders. The curriculum is basically the same with the general high schools but with a strong emphasis on vocational skills development.
  • The Philippine High School for the Arts
    It provides special curricula for the development of the talents and interests in arts, creative music, theater arts, in addition to the standard requirements of the secondary education curriculum.

14. Non-formal education

It offers alternative learning opportunities for the out-of-school youth and adults specifically for those who are fifteen (15) years old and above and unable to avail themselves of the educational services and programs of formal education.

15. School Paper

It shall consists mainly of editorial, sports and science page feature articles, reports and news items on the various school and community activities.

It is a venue for the development of the journalistic interest and skills of the students. In no case shall it be a venue for grievance and destructive criticisms.

16. Student Government

It provides learning opportunities and first-hand experiences in leadership and to exercise democratic procedures to all pupils/students.

17. Department Order No. 20, s. 1991

It prohibits the organization of fraternities and sororities at the elementary and secondary schools, both public and private. Penalty for non-compliance is expulsion and of pupils/students.

18. Notes on Health and Nutrition Program

Four (4) Major Phases of Health and Nutrition Program

  • Healthful school living
  • Health and nutrition services
  • Health education
  • School-community coordination for health

19. Notes on the EMIS

  • It stands for “Educational and Management Information System”
  • It is a well planned and meticulously managed information system better known as the “data bank”.
  • The EMIS should be handled by a teacher. Management of the EMIS is equivalent to four (4) teaching loads.

20. Notes on the Establishment of Schools

Guidelines on the Establishment of new Schools

  • No new public school shall be established except by law or pursuant to law.
  • The establishment of a new school, conversion of existing schools or changes of curricular offerings, administration, maintenance and conduct of existing secondary schools shall be by law.
  • New public schools may also be established in municipalities and cities upon the approval of the Secretary provided the requirements set are met.

21. Notes on opening school annexes in nearby barangays.

A feasibility study should be conducted by the school head of the mother school recommended by the Schools Division Superintendent and the Regional Director. The feasibility shall include;

  • Petition by the majority of the parents of prospective enrollees.
  • Title of school site of one (1) hectare or deed of donation in favor of the Department.
  • Certification of availability of funds for the construction of classrooms and other facilities.
  • Certification that the proposed annex is not within the 2-kilometer radius of any existing public/private schools.
  • Certification of the availability of funds, textbooks, references and equipment for Science, Mathematics, THE and PEHM.
  • Certification of continued support from the local government until such time that the school is incorporated in the national budget.
  • A copy of the budget of the mother school and the proposed budget of the annex.

22. Notes on the Integration of Schools

An existing elementary/high school may be integrated, merged or incorporated with another existing elementary/high school with a contiguous geographical area if enrolment in such school fails to meet the minimum of 100 students per curriculum year or if the continued separate operation of both schools is not financially feasible. In some cases elementary and secondary schools located in the same school site may be integrated (D.O. No. 5, s. 1989).

23. Notes on the areas of school sites.

  • One half (0.5) hectare for a school with an enrolment of 50 or less students.
  • One (1) hectare for a school with an enrolment of 50 to 1 000 students.
  • Two (2) hectares for a school with an enrolment of 1 000 to 2 000 students.
  • Three (3) hectares for a school with an enrolment of 2 000 to 3 000 students.
  • The same ratio should be maintained for enrolment in excess of 3 000.

24. Notes on the qualification to enroll on night classes.

Only qualified students should be allowed to enroll. They should have;

25. Notes on Closure of Schools

  • Voluntary when the school for valid cause and on its own initiative chooses to terminate or close of its own programs or courses offered, provided such closure is undertaken at the end of school term and provided further that the school remains obliged to furnish the necessary transfer credentials and records to the students affected by the closure.
  • Involuntary when the closure or termination is ordered by the Department through the revocation/withdrawal of the permit or certificate of recognition previously issued for the program or course.

26. Notes on the Temporary Closure of a Public School

  • No students are enrolled therein.
  • The school buildings are destroyed or have been declared dangerous to life.
  • The entire school building and site houses refugees from calamities.
  • There is no peace and order in the community.

Mark Anthony Llego

Mark Anthony Llego, hailing from the Philippines, has made a profound impact on the teaching profession by enabling thousands of teachers nationwide to access crucial information and engage in meaningful exchanges of ideas. His contributions have significantly enhanced their instructional and supervisory capabilities, elevating the quality of education in the Philippines. Beyond his domestic influence, Mark's insightful articles on teaching have garnered international recognition, being featured on highly respected educational websites in the United States. As an agent of change, he continues to empower teachers, both locally and internationally, to excel in their roles and make a lasting difference in the lives of their students, serving as a shining example of the transformative power of knowledge-sharing and collaboration within the teaching community.

12 thoughts on “DepEd Manual Reviewer”

  1. Good day! I have been searching for a 2000 DECS Service Manual but to no avail. Please, how can we have a copy of need. We are on the process of updating our student discipline manual and the said legal basis will be of great help. Looking forward for your positive response regarding my request. God bless!

  2. Hi! I’d like to ask on how I can go about Grade acceleration/grade skipping. My 6yo son (born on Nov 2015) is now in kinder. Most of his acad learnings are done at home (we practice homeschooling) but we enrolled him in public kindergarten (modular) primarily to help us with his student registration and records, but we mostly take charge of what to teach him. With this, he seems to us to be ahead in learning (writing, reading, english, math and science, emotionally and socially) compared to his classmates and even to other kids we know who are 2 or 3 years older than him. Will it be possible if we skip grade one for the next school year? Many thanks in advance.

  3. Provide Detailed Service Manual for Teachers to Teachers… Sana ilabas na ang kopya para teachers will be guided… we are all professionals in the field of teaching… para wala mg magreklamo…


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