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DepEd Manual Reviewer

CHAPTER VII: Human Resource Management and Development Policies
Terms, Notations and Important Concepts

1. Notes on the Coverage of the Civil Service

There are two general categories of service in the government as provided for in Section 6, Chapter 2, Book V, Executive Order 292. These are the career service and non-career service.

  • Career Service – it is based on merit and fitness determined as far as the practical competitive examinations, as based on highly technical qualifications.
  • Positions in the career service are grouped into First Level Positions, Second Level Positions and Third Level Positions.
  • First Level Positions – it includes clerical, trades, crafts, and custodial positions, entrance to which requires less than four (4) years of college work. The nature of work is sub-professional or non-supervisory.
  • Second Level Positions – it includes professional, technical, and scientific positions which involve professional, technical and scientific work in non-supervisory or supervisory capacity and requires at least four (4) years of college work.
  • Third Level Positions – it covers those in the career Executive Service which include ; undersecretary, assistant secretary, bureau director, assistant regional director, chief of department service, schools division superintendent, assistant schools division superintendent and other officials of equivalent rank.
  • Non-career Service – it includes the department secretaries and their personal and confidential staffs, contractual personnel, emergency and seasonal personnel.

2. Notes on Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment – it is the process of searching for, and identifying job candidates in sufficient quantity and quality to meet current and future organization needs.

  • If covered by Republic Act 7041, the vacant position shall be posted in three (3) conspicuous places in the offices for a period of ten (10) days. Vacant positions shall not be filled-up ten (10) working days have lapsed from the time of publication.
  • In case of chain promotion, anticipated vacancies may be published simultaneously with the existing vacant position(s).
  • In case of renewal of appointments, publications may be done prior to its expiration.
  • When the position is in the first level of the career services becomes vacant, selection is department-wide.
  • When the positions in the career service become vacant, employees, whether incumbents of next-in-rank positions or not, who meet the minimum position requirement may apply and be considered for promotion/appointment.
  • Qualified next –in-rank employees in the office where the vacancy exists are automatically included in the ranking.
  • When the position is in the second level of the career service becomes vacant, selection is government-wide.

3. Notes on the Comparative Degree of Competence used

  • Performance – this is based on the last performance rating. To qualify for promotion, performance ratings should at least be Very satisfactory.
  • Outstanding Accomplishment – includes accomplishments worthy of special commendations.
  • Relevant Experience and Specialized Trainings – this consists of the performance of duties/functions relevant to the next higher position over a period expressed in years with every year given a point but not to exceed five (5) points equivalent to five (5) years.
  • Education and Training – education refers to the educational background, trainings refers to the completion/attendance of trainings/programs/seminars/conferences. Such education and training should be relevant to the duties of the position to be filled.
  • Physical Characteristics and Personality Traits – these refer to the physical fitness, attitudes and personality traits of the applicant/candidate which have a bearing on the position to be filled.
  • Potential – this takes into the account the applicant’s/candidate’s capacity to perform the duties and assume the responsibility of the higher and more responsible positions.

4. Notes on Instruments/Tools Used

  • Merit Promotion Plan – it was issued through DECS Order No. 8, s. 1993 which provides guidelines, policies and procedures for recruitment, selection and appointment.
  • System of ranking Positions – it was issued through DECS Order No. 54, s. 1993 which includes alignment of positions into their hierarchical order in function and grade allocation and sets of criteria and procedures in ranking of applicants/candidates.
  • Qualifications Standards Manual – it contains the minimum requirements set for each position expressed in terms of education, training and experience, and civil service eligibility. CSC QSM of 1997 for common positions is used and DECS QSM of 1995 is used for unique DECS positions.
  • Performance Appraisal System (DECS Order No. 101, s. 1990)

5. Notes on Documents Required of the Applicant/Candidate for Ranking

  • Personal Data Sheet (Civil Service Form 212)
  • Certified true copies of the following;
    Transcript of Records
  • CSC Report of Ratings
  • Certificate of completion of attendance in conference/training program/seminar/workshop
  • Certificate of scholarship enjoyed/awards received
  • Complete service records
  • Latest performance rating
  • Forms used in evaluation/ranking
    Evaluation Form Nos. II and III (DECS Order No. 54, s. 1993)

6. Notes on Common Requirements for Regular Appointments

  • Form – The appointment in triplicate copies shall be in the prescribed CS Form 33(Revised 1998) for the regular employees or the Plantilla Form 001 for casual employees. Original copies shall not be filled out using photocopied forms.
  • Signature of the appointing authority- The original copy of the appointment must be signed and at least the succeeding two (2) copies initialed by the appointing authority.
  • Position title – The position title shall conform to the approved Position allocation List. The salary grade shall be indicated after the position title.
  • Employment status – The employment status shall be indicated on the space provided thereof.
  • Date of signing – It is the date of the issuance of the appointment, shall be indicated below the signature or the initial of the appointing authority.
  • Personal Data Sheet (Civil Service Form 212 (Revised 2005)

Read: List of Requirements for Teachers You Must Know

7. Notes on Employment Status in General

  • Permanent Appointment – It is issued to a person who meets all the minimum qualification requirements of the position to which he is being appointed including the appropriate eligibility.
  • Temporary Appointment – It is issued to a person who, except for the appropriate eligibility, meets all other requirements the education, experience, and training requirements for the position to which he is being appointed.
  • Substitute Appointment – It is issued when the regular incumbent of a position is temporarily unable to perform the duties of his position, as when he is on approved leave of absence/suspension/scholarship grants/secondment. It is issued only if the leave of absence of the incumbent is at least three (3) months, except in the case of the teachers.
  • Coterminous Appointment – It is issued to a person whose entrance and continuity in the service is based on the trust and confidence of the appointing authority or head of unit or co-existential with the incumbent; or limited by the duration of the projects; or co-existent with the period for which an agency or office was created.
  • Contractual Appointment – It is issued to a person who shall undertake a specific work or a job for a limited period not to exceed one (1) year. The inclusive period shall be indicated on the appointment for purposes of crediting services.
  • Casual Appointment – It is issued only for essential and necessary services where there are not enough regular staffs to meet the demands of the service.

8. Notes on the Employment Status of Teachers

  • Regular Permanent – It is issued to a teacher who meets all the requirements of the position.
  • Provisional – It is issued to a teacher who meets all the requirements of the position except of the eligibility.
  • Substitute – It is issued to a teacher when the regular incumbent is temporarily unable to perform the duties of the position.

9. Notes on Nature of Appointment

Original – It refers to the initial entry into the career and non-career service. However, for those in the career service, the first six (6) months of service following an original appointment shall be probationary in nature and the appointee shall undergo a thorough character investigation. A probationer may be dropped from the service for unsatisfactory conduct or want of capacity anytime before the expiration of the probationary period. Such action is appealable to the Civil Service Commission.

Promotion – It is the advancement of the employee from one position to another with an increase in duties and responsibilities and usually accompanied by an increase in salary.

Transfer – It is the movement of employee from one position to another which is of equivalent rank, level or salary without the break in service.

  • The transfer may be from one department or agency to another or from one organizational unit to another in the same department or agency. Any movement from non-career to the career service shall not be considered a transfer.
  • An employee who seeks to transfer to another office shall first secure permission from the head of the department or agency where he is employed stating the effective date of his transfer. If the request of transfer is not granted by the head of office where is employed, it shall be deemed approve after thirty (30) days from the date of notice to the agency head.
  • If the employee fails to transfer on the specified date, he shall be considered resigned and his reemployment shall be at the discretion of the head of office. A transfer is effective on the day following the last day of service of the employee in his former office.

Reemployment – It is reappointment of a person who has been previously appointed to a position in the career or non-career service and was separated therefrom as a result of reduction in force, reorganization, retirement, voluntary resignation, non-disciplinary actions such as dropping from the rolls and other modes of separation. Reemployment presupposes the gap in the service. No prior authority shall be required for the reemployment of a person who has been previously retired and who has not reached the compulsory retirement age of 65.

Reappointment – It is the re-issuance of an appointment during reorganization, devolution, salary standardization, re-nationalization or similar events. Reemployment presupposes the gap in the service.

Reinstatement – It is the issuance of an appointment to a person who has been previously appointed to a position in the career service and who has through no delinquency or misconduct, been separated therefrom or to one who has been exonerated of the administrative charges unless the decision exonerating him specifies restoration to his previous station. An employee who has been exonerated or who has been illegally terminated is deemed not to have left the service.

Renewal – It refers to the subsequent appointment issued upon the expiration of the contractual/casual personnel or temporary appointment, if qualified eligible is not actually available as certified by the Civil Service Regional Director or Field Officer. Renewal presupposes no gap in the service.

10. Notes on Change of Status

  • Temporary to Permanent – It is issued to a temporary employee when he acquires the appropriate eligibility or becomes fully qualified for the position to which he is appointed.
  • Provisional to regular (permanent) – It is issued when a provisional teacher qualifies and is registered as a professional teacher.
  • Demotion – It is the movement of an employee from one position to another with reduction in salary and is not disciplinary in nature. In case a demotion involves reduction in salary and is non-disciplinary, a written consent shall be secured from the demoted employee.

11. Upgrading Reclassification

It refers to the change in position title with the corresponding increase in salary grade.
This requires an issuance of appointment.

12. Notes on Other Personnel Movements

  • Reassignment – It is the movement of an employee from one organizational unit to another in the same department or agency which does not involve a reduction in rank, status or salary.
  • Detail – It is the temporary movement of an employee from one department or agency to another office or agency and does not involve a reduction in rank, status or salary. The detailed employee receives his salary from his mother unit or agency. Detail shall be allowed only for a maximum period of one (1) year in the case of the employees occupying professional, technical or scientific. Detail beyond one (1) year may be allowed provided it is with consent of the detailed employee.
  • Secondment – It is the movement of an employee from one department or agency to another which is temporary in nature which may either involve increase in compensation and benefits. Acceptance thereof is voluntary on the part of the employee.

NOTE: Renewal of (temporary) appointments require prior publication under Republic Act 7041

13. Job Rotation

It is the sequential or reciprocal movement of an employee from one office to another or from one division to another within the same agency as a means of developing and enhancing the potentials of people in an organization by exposing them to other work functions in the organization.

14. Designation

It is merely an imposition of additional duties to be performed by a public official with corresponding title, or position which is temporary and can be terminated anytime at the pleasure of the appointing authority.

15. Notes on Modes of Separation

  • Resignation – It is the relinquishing of one’s position from an agency or department.
  • Dropping from the Rolls – It is where officers and employees who are either habitually absent or have unsatisfactory or poor performance or have shown to be physically and mentally unfit to perform their duties may be dropped from the rolls.


  • An official or employee who is given two (2) consecutive unsatisfactory ratings may be dropped from the rolls after due notice.
  • An officer who is continuously absent for more than one (1) year by reason of illness may be declared physically unfit to perform his duties and the head of the office in the exercise of his sound judgment may consequently dropped him from the rolls.
  • An officer or employee who is intermittently absent by reason of illness for at least twenty (20) working days during a 24-month period may also be declared unfit by the head of office.
  • An officer or employee who is behaving abnormally for an extended period which manifests continuing mental disorder and incapacity to work as reported by his co-workers or immediate superior and confirmed by the head of office, may likewise be dropped from the rolls.

16. Republic Act No. 1080

It provides that the names of those who passed the bar or board of examinations shall be automatically entered in the corresponding register of eligibles.

17. Presidential Decree 907

It provides automatic eligibility to those who are honor graduates subject to the provisions of this Act as amended.

18. Republic Act No. 7836

It is otherwise known as the “ Philippine Professionalization of Teachers Act of 1994”.
It provides that no person shall practice or offer to practice the teaching profession in the Philippines without a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the PRC.

19. Notes on Professional Growth

All regions and divisions shall set aside five (5) percent of MOOE budget for HRD trainings to assure the planning of realistic results-oriented and relevant training proposals.

  • Induction Program – It refers to the program for new entrants in government to develop their pride, sense of belonging and commitment to the public service.
  • Orientation Program – It refers to the activities and courses designed to inform new employees about agency/government programs, thrusts and operations, as well as on their duties and responsibilities as well as the benefits and privileges.
  • Reorientation – It refers to courses designed to introduce new duties and responsibilities, new policies and programs to employees who have been in the service for quite some time.
  • Professional/technical/scientific Program – It refers to the substantive programs in specific professional/technical/scientific areas for enhancement of skills and knowledge of second level personnel in the career service.
  • Employee Development Program – It refers to the courses aimed at maintaining a high level of competence on basic workplace skills among employees at the first level in the career service.
  • Middle-management Development Program – It refers to a set or series of planned human resource interventions and training courses designed to provide division chiefs and other officials comparable rank with management and administrative skills and to prepare them for greater responsibilities.
  • Values Development Program – It refers to courses which are designed and harness to public service values of participants to be effective government service.
  • Executive Development Program – It refers to activities and experiences, and continuing education in tended to enhance the managerial skills of government officials or executives who belong to the third level.
  • Career Pathing Program – It is a set of professional activities on the skills and capabilities of an employee to enhance and maximize his professional growth and promotion in the service.

20. Notes on Employees Welfare, Benefits, Incentives, Recognitions and Awards

In general, appointive officials up to the level of heads of executive departments, heads of departments, undersecretaries and employees of the government whether permanent, temporary or casual who render work during the prescribed office hours, shall be entitled with 15 days vacation and 15 days sick leave annually with full pay exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays, without limitation as to the number of days of vacation and sick leave they may accumulate.

Employees rendering services on part-time basis are entitled to vacation and sick leave benefits proportionate to the number of work hours rendered. A part-time employee who renders four (4) hours of work, five (5) days a week or a total of 20 hours a weeks, is entitled to 7.5 days vacation and 7.5 days of sick leave annually with full pay.

Married women in the government service who have rendered an aggregate of two (2) or more years of service shall, in addition to the vacation and sick leave granted them, be entitled to maternity leave of sixty (60) calendar days with full pay.

Maternity leave of those who have rendered one (1) year or more but less than two (2) years of service shall be computed in proportion to their length of service, provided, that those who have served for less than one (1) year shall be entitled to 60-days leave with half pay.

  • The enjoyment of maternity leave cannot be deferred, it should be availed either before or after the actual period of delivery in a continuous and uninterrupted manner, not exceeding 60 calendar days.
  • Employees who render less than two (2) years of service may only receive full pay for a number of days based on the ratio of 60 days to two (2) years of service.
  • A married woman employee is entitled to maternity leave of absence with pay even if she has a pending administrative case.
  • Married women who are contractual employees whether or not receiving 20% premium on their salary, shall be entitled to maternity leave benefits like the regular employees, in accordance with the provisions of Section 18, Rule XVI, CSC-MC No. 41, s. 1998.
  • Every married male employee is entitled to paternity leave of seven (7) working days, for the first four (4) deliveries of his legitimate spouse.
  • Legitimate spouse refers to a woman validly entered a contract of marriage with male government employee availing the paternity leave benefits under the Law.
  • Married male employees with more than one (1) legal spouse shall be entitled to avail of paternity leave for an absolute maximum of four (4) deliveries regardless of whichever spouse gives birth.
  • The first of the four (4) deliveries shall be reckoned from the effectivity of the Paternity Leave Act on July 15, 1996.
  • Paternity leave of seven (7) days shall be non-cumulative and strictly non-convertible to cash.

Officials and employees, except teachers and those covered by special leave laws, are granted the following leave privileges subject to the conditions hereunder stated;

  • Funeral/mourning leave
  • Graduation leave
  • Enrolment leave
  • Wedding/anniversary leave
  • Birthday leave
  • Hospitalization leave
  • Accident leave
  • Relocation leave
  • Government transaction leave
  • Calamity leave

That the official/employee may be granted a maximum of three (3) days within a calendar year of any or combination of special leave privileges of his choice which he could opt to avail of.

That the official/employee shall submit the application for the said special leave privileges at least one (1) week prior to its availment except in emergency cases.

Officials and employees in the career and non-career service whether permanent, temporary, casual or coterminous, who have accumulated fifteen (15) days are allowed to monetize a minimum of ten (10 ) days; provided that at least five (5) days is retained after monetization and provided that a maximum of thirty (30) days may be monetized in a given year.

The mandatory annual five (5)-day vacation leave shall be forfeited if not taken during the year.

Terminal leave is applied for by an official or an employee who intends to sever his connection with his employer.

Teachers who have at least seven (7) years of continuous service are entitled to study leave of absence with pay not exceeding one (1) school year subject to approval of the head of office.

An indefinite sick leave of absence shall be granted to teachers when the nature of the illness demands a long treatment that will exceed one (1) year at the least.

Teacher’s vacation service credits refer to the leave credits earned during summer or Christmas vacation, as authorized by proper authority.

The study leave is a time off from work not exceeding (6) months with pay for the purpose of assisting qualified officials and employees to prepare for their bar/board examinations or complete their masteral degree.

All applications for sick leave of absence for one (1) full day or more shall be made on the prescribed form and shall be filed immediately upon employee’s return from such leave.

Notice of absence, however, should be sent to the immediate supervisor and/or to the agency head.

Application for sick leave in excess of five (5) successive days shall be accompanied by a proper medical certificate.

Absence on a regular day for which suspension of work is announced. Where an official or an employee fails to report to work on a regular day for which suspension of work is declared after the start of the regular working hours, he shall not be considered absent for the whole day. Instead, he shall only be deducted leave credits or the amount corresponding to the time when official working hours start up to the time of suspension of work is announced.

The official/employee who has reached the compulsory retirement age of sixty (60) but whose service has been extended by the Commission for another six (6) months, no longer earns leave credits.

An official or employee with pending administrative case/s is not barred from enjoying leave privileges.

Teachers exposed to hardship to the place of worked determined by the Secretary of Education shall be compensated hardship allowance equivalent to at least 25% of their monthly salary (R.A. 4670, Section 19 – Magna Carta for Public School Teachers)

Teachers assigned to places declared by the President as calamity areas shall be granted the equivalent of five (5) days additional salary per month but payable only for the duration of the calamity period (R.A. 5447 – The Special Education Fund Act).

Teachers exposed to hardship or extreme difficulty in the place of work and teachers assigned to handle multi-grade classes as determined by the Secretary of DECS shall be compensated special hardship allowance equivalent to at least 25% of the basic pay.

Hazard Duty Pay – This refers to the compensation premium or allowance paid to officials and employees actually assigned or stationed in a work area which exposes them to great danger, occupational risks, or perils in life.

Productivity Incentive Benefits – It shall be based on the individual personnel productivity and performance as evaluated and determined by the heads of the respective offices/agencies in accordance with the policies and standards set by the Civil Service Commission.

Cash Allowance to Teachers – It is provided for the teachers for the purchase of the chalk, erasers, forms, and other classroom supplies directly used shall be paid only to classroom teachers.

Year-end Bonus and Cash Gift – All government personnel, whether appointed or elective under regular, temporary or casual status and contractual personnel whose employment is in the nature of the regular employee, who are still in the service as of October 31 each year, are granted with this incentive.

Automatic Annuity – Monthly pension is paid guaranteed for five (5) years from the date of retirement. After the five (5) year period, payment of the monthly annuity continues if the retiree is still living.

Five-Year Lump Sum – This is available only to those who are at least sixty-three (63) years of age or over on the date of retirement. After five (5) years, if still living, retiree is paid monthly annuity for life.

Initial Three-Year Lump Sum – This is available to those who are at least sixty (60) years of age on the date of retirement. The subsequent two-year lump sum is paid to the retiree on his 63rd birthday. . After five (5) years, if still living, retiree is paid monthly annuity for life.

Salary Adjustment – It is based on approved ERF of Teachers Appropriation provided annually in General Appropriations Act (GAA).

Step Increment – It shall be granted to all deserving officials and employees based on merit and length of service. Appropriations provided annually in the General Appropriations Act (GAA).

DECS Provident Fund – It aims to provide DECS official and employees benefits and loans for emergency needs, and that of their immediate dependents and that of their children, for their hospitalization, and that of their immediate dependents, and for other similar purposes to be determined by the Board of Trustees.

DECS Shelter Program – It aims to provide affordable and decent housing to employees through coordination with government housing and financing institutions and private subdivision developers.

Automatic Upgrading of Positions for Eligible Public School Teachers through the ERFs Scheme – This is the automatic position upgrading granted to Teacher I who have rendered twenty (20) years or more with satisfactory teaching service without the need for filing an application for ERF upgrading.

Mark Anthony Llego

Mark Anthony Llego, hailing from the Philippines, has made a profound impact on the teaching profession by enabling thousands of teachers nationwide to access crucial information and engage in meaningful exchanges of ideas. His contributions have significantly enhanced their instructional and supervisory capabilities, elevating the quality of education in the Philippines. Beyond his domestic influence, Mark's insightful articles on teaching have garnered international recognition, being featured on highly respected educational websites in the United States. As an agent of change, he continues to empower teachers, both locally and internationally, to excel in their roles and make a lasting difference in the lives of their students, serving as a shining example of the transformative power of knowledge-sharing and collaboration within the teaching community.

12 thoughts on “DepEd Manual Reviewer”

  1. Good day! I have been searching for a 2000 DECS Service Manual but to no avail. Please, how can we have a copy of need. We are on the process of updating our student discipline manual and the said legal basis will be of great help. Looking forward for your positive response regarding my request. God bless!

  2. Hi! I’d like to ask on how I can go about Grade acceleration/grade skipping. My 6yo son (born on Nov 2015) is now in kinder. Most of his acad learnings are done at home (we practice homeschooling) but we enrolled him in public kindergarten (modular) primarily to help us with his student registration and records, but we mostly take charge of what to teach him. With this, he seems to us to be ahead in learning (writing, reading, english, math and science, emotionally and socially) compared to his classmates and even to other kids we know who are 2 or 3 years older than him. Will it be possible if we skip grade one for the next school year? Many thanks in advance.

  3. Provide Detailed Service Manual for Teachers to Teachers… Sana ilabas na ang kopya para teachers will be guided… we are all professionals in the field of teaching… para wala mg magreklamo…


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